8 t. Route.
distant tombs are 2 M. from the town. The tumuli which distin-
guished the tombs externally have been entirely destroyed; the sub-
terranean rock-hewn chambers now alone remain. Even in ancient
times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the
precious trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have de-
spoiled them of every movable object that remained. Nevertheless,
owing to their arrangement and the good preservation of their paint-
ings, a visit to them is extremely interesting to those who desire
to forni an idea7 of the civilisation, art, and religion of the Etruscans.
The decoration is in a style that was prevalent chiefly in the towns
of southern Etruria, and indicates a dose relationship to Hellenic
art. — The following (especially Nos. 7, 11, 14, and 19) are the
most interesting tombs : —
No. 4. Grotta della Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt), or Grotta Quer-
ciola. The faded paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 364),
represent a banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Oppo-
site to this tomb —
No. 7. Grotta del Convito Fùnebre, or del Triclinio, also with the
representation of a banquet. The admirable drawing bears witness to
the influence of the best period of archaic Greek art. The men here, as
in the others, are coloured dark red, the women sketched in outline on
the walls in whitish colours.
No. 10. Grotta del Morto; mourning for the deceased, and dancers.
No. 11. Grotta del Tifone, very large, supported in the centre by
a pillar, on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in
serpents. The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a
proof that they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the
wall are souls escorted by genii ; among them is Charon with the hammer.
No. 12. Grotta degli Scudi or delle Quattro Stanze, with banquet-
No. 13. Grotta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb at Tarquinii,
supported by four pillars ; colours almost entirely faded.
No. 14. Grotta dell' Orco, or del Polifemo : in the anterior chamber,
a banquet; in the one beyond it, a scene from the infernal regions, with
Pluto, Proserpine, Geryon, Tiresias, Agamemnon, Memnon, and Theseus;
in a niche is Ulysses blinding Polyphemus. — The paintings here exhibit
unmistakable Greek influence.
No. 15. Grotta dei Vasi Dipinti, and No. 16. Grotta del Vecchio,
with banquets and dances, both not later than the first half of the 5th
cent. B. C.
No. 18. Grotta delle Iscrizioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan
inscriptions, with warlike trials of skill.
No. 19. Grotta del Barone, so called from the Hanoverian ambassa-
dor Baron Kestner? by whom it was opened, contains warlike games,
riders, etc, partly in the archaic style; colours well preserved.
No. 20. Grotta delle Bighe, discovered in 1827 by Baron Stackelberg.
A copy of the paintings (funereal games and dances) is in the Vatican. —
Near it is No. 21. Grotta del Mare, small, with sea-horses.
No. 23. Grotta degli Auguri (with funereal games ; a criminal with
veiled head fighting with a large mastifif, hounded on by a figure in a
mask), of the same date as Nos. 15 and 16.
Toscanella (p. 114) lies about 17 M. to the N.E. of Corneto; diligence
on Mon., Wed., & Frid. in 3 hrs., fare 2 fr. ; carr. 10 fr.
The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto, which remains
visible for a long time. To the right, farther on, is the insigni-