1896). — Das alte Rom, by Biihlmann and Wagner, a panorama with the
entry of Constantine the Great in A.D. 312, is an excellent aid to forming
an idea of the appearance of ancient Rome (Munich, 1891).
Modern Rome. Guide to the Public Collections of Classical Anti-
quities in Rome, by Helbig and Reisch (Engl. translation, 2 vols. ; Leipzig,
1895-96), a valuable and convenient handbook to the sculpture-galleries. —
Walks in Rome (17th ed., 2 vols. ; London, 1905), a cicerone for the ordinary
visitor, and Days near Rome (5th ed., 2 vols.; London, 1906), both by
A. J. C Hare. — Rome: its Monuments, Arts, and Antiquities (London,
1887), translated from the French of Francis Wey. — Rome of To-day
and Yesterday, by John Dennie (3rd ed. ; New York, 1§96). — Ave Roma
Imporialis, by F. Marion Crawford (London, 1898). — Rome and Pom-
peii; Archaeological Rambles (London, 1896), translated from the French
of G. Boissier. — Roba di Roma, by W.W. Story (1863 and several later
editions) describes many of the present and past customs of modern Rome.
— Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome (4 parts ; London,
1897 seq.) gives information as to the liturgy in Rome (especially in
part ii) and other ecclesiastical matters. — Amélung and Holtzinger,
The Museums and Ruins of Rome (London, 1906). — Debleser, Rome et
ses Monuments (5th ed. ; 1900) is a detailed Roman Catholic guide. —
L. Hutton, Literary Landmarks of Rome (London, 1887). — A. G. Wels-
ford, M. D., Wintering in Rome (Rome, 1907).
History. The reader need scarcely bo reminded of the histories of
Gibbon, Arnold, Merivale, Liddell, Gilman, and Bury, nor of the English
translations of Mommsen, Niébuhr, Duruy, Ihne, and Ranke. — The
History of Rome in the Middle Ages (5-16th cent.) by F. Gregorovius
also has appeared in an English translation (1894 seq.). — H. Stuart Jones,
The Roman Empire, 29 B.C.-A.D. 476 (London, 1908). — J. Wright Duff,
Literary History of Rome (London, 1908). — W. Miller, Mediaeval Rome :
1073-1600 (Story of the Nations Series ; London, 1901). — Norwood Young,
Story of Rome (Mediaeval Towns Series; London, 1901). — Bolton King,
History of Italian Unity; 1814-71 (London; 2 vols. ; 1899).
Fiction. Transformation, or The Marble Faun, byNathaniel Hawthorne,
contains much incidental matter of interest for the visitor to Rome. —
See also George Sand's Daniella, Andersen's Improvisatore, Miss Roberts's
Mademoiselle Mori, Ouida's Ariadne, Zola's Rome, and various novels
by F. Marion Crawford. — Becker's Gallus, Cardinal Wiseman's Fabiola,
Sienkewicz's Quo Vadis, Graham's Nèaera, Lockhart's Valerius, and
Westbury's Acte are tales dealing with the life of ancient Rome.
Among the best works on Italian art are Morelli's Italian Painters;
Crowe & Cavalcasene's History of Painting in Italy (new edit. ; 1903 seq:)
and History of Painting in North Italy ; Kugler's Handbook of Painting
(new ed. by Sir H. Layard); Mrs. Jameson'8 Lives of the Italian Painters ;
Mr. Bernard Berenson's Central Italian Painters, and other works ; the
various writings of Dr. Jean Paul Richter; and the works of Mr. C. C:
Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trustworthy manual
for the traveller in Italy is Burckhardt's Cicerone (translated by Mrs.
A. H. Clough). — Mrs. Arthur Strong's Roman Sculpture from Augustus
to Constantine (London, 1907) should be consulted by the visitor to Rome.—
'Italia Artistica, Monografie Illustrate' (Bergamo; 1902 seq.), edited by
Corrado Ricci, a series with numerous illustrations, includes monographs
on San Marino (No. 5), Urbino (No. 6), La Campagna Romana (No. 7), Siena
(No. 9), San Gimignano e Certaldo (No. 11), Gubbio (No. 13), Perugia (No.
15), Volterra (No. 18), L'Aniene (No. 21), and Montepulciano, Chiusi, e la
Val di Chiana Senese (No. 31).