The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at
length compelled Clement V- (1305-16) in 1309 to transfer the
seat of the pontificai government to Avignon, where it remained
till 1377, whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs and
Ghibellines, Neapolitans and Germans, Orsinis and Colonnas, and
for a brief period (1347) Cola di Rienzo even succeeded in restor-
ing the ancient republican form of government. This was an epoch
of the utmost misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced
the population to less than 20,000 souls.
A happier era was inaugurated by the return of Gregory XI.
(1370-78) to the city (1377). After the termination of the papal
schism (1378-1417) the new development of the city progressed
rapidly, aided by the vast sums of money which flowed into the
papal coffers and by the revival of taste for art and science pro-
moted by Nicholas V (1447-55), Julius IL (1503-13), Leo X.
(1513-22), etc. In 1527 the city was sacked (Sacco di Roma) by
the troops of the imperiai general Charles of Bourbon; but it
gradually recovered from the blow, its population again increased,
many palaces were reared by papal favourites, while the popes
and their cardinals restored the old churches and vied with each
other in building new ones. This was especially the case during
the pontificate of Sixtus V- (1585-90), to whom modera Rome is
chiefly indebted for its characteristic features. Comp. p. lxxiii.
In 1798 a republic was established for a short period at Rome,
and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under the supremacy of France.
A republican form of government was again declared in 1849, in
consequence of the events of 1848, but Pius IX. was restored by
the French in 1850. The city was then garrisoned by 15,000
French troops, who were withdrawn in 1866, in accordance with
the convention of 1864; but they were recalled after the Gari-
baldian hostilities of 1867, and were quartered in the environs
until the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On
20th Sept. of that year the Italian troops marched into the city,
after a bombardment of five hours. The States of the Church are
now incorporated with the kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is
once more the capital. The population of the city in 1870 was
about 215,000. On Jan. 9th, 1878, occurred the death of Victor
Emmanuel IL He was succeeded by his son, Humbert I. (b. 1844;
assassinated July 29th, 1900) and his grandson Victor Emma¬
nuel III. (b. Nov. llth, 1869).