well as with cabnien, boatmen, guides, etc. A cairn and courteous
demeanour should at ali times be maintained; a mild jest or an
amiable criticism of the country will frequently obviate or remove
difficulties. Italians are characterized by courtesy towardsstrangers,
especially to ladies.
Gratuities are more customary in Italy than elsewhere, but
are calculated on a much lower scale. Drivers, guides, porters, etc,
invariably expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona
mano, mancia, da bere, caffè, sigaro), in addition to the hire
agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 10-15 e. to a
frane or more. The gratuities suggested in this Handbook are on
a sufficiently liberal scale; some, however, will of course give more,
while the traveller of modest claims will find perhaps two-thirds
or even less enough. — Travellers should always be supplied with
an abundance of small coins (p. x) and should take care to pay the
The following hints will be found useful by the average tourist.
In public collections, where a charge for admission is made, the
keepers (custodi) are forbidden to accept gratuities. In private
collections 1-2 pers. should bestow a gratuity of 1/2-l fr., 3-4 pers.
l-l1/^ fr.; for repeated visits less. For opening a church-door, etc.
10-20 e. is enough, but if extra services are rendered (e. g. uncovering
an altar-piece, lighting candles, etc), from 25 e. to 1 fr. may be
given. The traveller should never reward unsolicited services, and
he should not offer a fee unless he is sure it is expected. — In hotels
and restaurants about 5-10 per cent of the reckoning should be
given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for.
Guides (Guide, sing. la Guida). Licensed guides (Guide
patentate) may be obtained in Eome for 15 fr. per day (apply at
any hotel). Their licenses are issued by the Italian Archaeological
Commission and contain a tariff of charges. In other towns guides
may be hired at 6-10 fr. per day, but their services may generally
well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed for time.
Purchases should never be made in their company as they receive
a commission from the shop, which of course comes out of the
Public Safety. Travelling in Northern and Central Italy is
not attended with greater hazard than in any of the northern
European countries. The traveller should, of course, avoid the less
frequented parts of Eome and its environs after nightfall. Informa¬
tion as to the safety of the Campagna is also not to be despised,
though cases of robbery there are hardly more numerous than in
the neighbourhood of any large city. Ladies should never undertake
expeditions to the more solitary distriets without escort; and even
the masculine traveller should arrange his excursions so as to regain