334 Route 45. STONEHENGE.
The Interior is linely proportioned, but inferior to that of Winchester
Cathedral. The W. window contains "Stained Glass from Dijon. Along
the sides of the nave, under the arches, stand rows of monuments, some
of which were erected in ttie llth and 12th centuries to the memory of
Bishops of Old Sarum (see below). The Choir is fine, but its ell'ect is some¬
what marred by the modern painted choir-staffs. — The "Lady Chapel is
a fight and elegant structure. The N. wing of the choir contains the in¬
teresting monument of Sir Thomas Gorges and his wife (d. 1635), the
builders of Longford Castle (see below).
The spacious and handsome "Cloisters, still in capital preservation.
lead to the octagonal "Chapter House (52 il. in height), constructed in the
second half of the 13th cent,, tile vaulted roof of which is supported Tiy
a slender clustered column. The interior produces a very pleasing im¬
pression. The carefully restored decorations belong to the 14th century.
The other churches of Salisbury are of little interest. The so-
called Hall of John Halle, in New Canal Street, may be selected
for notice among the old buildings of the town. It was built by
John Halle, a rich wool-merchant, as a dwelling-house in 1470,
and was restored in 1834.
Philip Massinger, the dramatist (d. 1640), Joseph Addison
(A. 1719), and Henry Fielding, the novelist (d. 1754), all resided
at Salisbury. The 'Vicar of AVakefield' by Oliver Goldsmith
(A. 1774) was printed here for the first time.
Environs. Interesting excursion to Sloueheiige. lying 9 31. to the N.
[Carriage there and back. 13s. Gd. to 15s. — We may also take the Devius
coach as far as |6 31.) the inn called Druid's Head, about IV2 31. from
Stonehenge: but this route, though shorter, is less interesting.) The road
usually selected leads by (1 3L) Old Sarum, an entrenched eminence, once
the site of a Konian fort, and afterwards of a Saxon town, where the
cathedral, removed to Salisbury in 1258. originally stood. At the neigh¬
bouring village of Stratford is a house which was once inhabited by the
famous William Pitt. Then (4-'/a 31.") Heale House, where Charles II. spent some
days after the Battle of Worcester (1651); 5(2 31. Great Durnford, with the
British cam]) of Ogbury Hill. About 2I/2 3I. farther on, the road turns to
the right and leads to (8 3f.| the viilage of Amesbury (Crown), prettily-
situated in a slight depression. In the neighbourhood are the picturesque
seat of Amesbury Abbey, so named from a former religious house, and
Vespasian's Camp, originally of Britisii origin, but afterwards turned to
account by the Romans; the old abbey church deserves a visit. A walk
of about 25 min. towards the left now brings us to "Stonehenge (called
by the Saxons Stanhengest, i.e. 'hanging stones"; formerly Choir Gaur or
Cor Gaicr. great circle or temple), the imposing ruins of an ancient,
probably Druidic. sanctuary, the origin and object of which are unknown.
It consists of a number of moss-grown stones, about f6 ft. in height.
arranged in three concentric circles, and still partly connected with each
other by Hat slabs lying across their tops. In the middle is the so-
called Altar: adjacent is the ■('ursus', where the assembled people are
supposed to have stood during the Druidic ceremonials. — Salisbury Plain,
in the midst of which Stonehenge is situated, formerly a sterile tract,
has been converted into a fertile district by the advance of agriculture.
Wilton (Pembroke Arms), a small town with 8000 inhab., 3 31. to the
W. of Salisbury, possesses a magnificent Romanesque "Church. Not far
from the town stands Wilton House. the seat of the Earl of Pembroke.
famed for its valuable Greek and Roman Sculptures, and Collection of
pictures by Van Dyck. Holbein, Albert Diirer. Poussin, Sir Joshua Reynolds,
and other masters. The first earl, the friend of Shakspeare. died iii 1600;
almost all the subsequent earls have been eminent as lovers of art, The
grounds are also worth seeing. The Italian. Garden contains a pavilion
designed by Holbein.
Longford Castle, the eat of the Earl of Radnor, lies on the Avon,