to Aberdeen. ABERDEEN. 72. Route. 557
(PI. f; B, 5, 6), Forsyth's Temperance (PL g; B, 5), 100 Union St. — The
Queen's Restaurant, 120 Union St., near the station (D. 2s. 6d.).
Cabs. Per mile Is., each addit. 1/2 M., 6d ; per hour 2s.-2s. 6d. —
Electric Tramways traverse the principal streets and ply to the various
Steamers. To Leith (Edinburgh), see p. 516; to (36 hrs.) London every
Wed. & Sat. (fares 30s., 15s.); to (18 hrs.) Inverness every Tues. & Frid. (8s.);
to (12 hrs.) Newcastle every Sat. (10s., 6s.); to (20 hrs.) Hull every Tues.
(15s , 10s). To Wick and the Orkney and Shetland Islands, see p. 568.
American Commercial Agent, Mr. Adolphe Danziger.
The Great North of Scotland Railway has arranged numerous plea¬
sant circular tours from Aberdeen, taking in Dundee, Perth, Dunkeld,
Inverness, the Trossachs, etc.
Aberdeen, which may be called the capital of the N. of Scotland,
is a handsome town, built chiefly of granite, situated at the mouth
of the Dee. Pop. (1901) 153,108.
Aberdeen is one of the oldest towns in Scotland, though the time of
its foundation is obscure. The earliest known municipal charter, afterwards
extended by Robert Bruce, was granted by William the Lion in 1179. Its
characteristic industry is the production of polished granite monuments,
columns, etc., in which about 90 firms are engaged. The art of granite-
polishing, which had been lost (as far, at least, as this country is con¬
cerned) since the days of the Pharaohs, was revived here about 1818
by Mr. Alexander Macdonald (Macdonald, Field, & Co.), and has become
the chief source of the town's prosperity. Upwards of 250,000 tons of granite
are annually quarried in Aberdeenshire. The visito'- should not quit
Aberdeen without going over one of the highly interesting granite-works.
Ship-building and paper-making are also important industries. Aberdeen
carries on a large export-trade in granite monuments, cattle, etc., and is
one of the most important centres of trawl-fishing in the country. It has
a fine harbour and docks.
Union Street (P1.A,B, 5,6), the chief thoroughfare of Aberdeen,
3/4 M. long and 70 ft. wide, built entirely of granite, and one of
the handsomest streets in Europe, has been described ('The Land
We Live In') as possessing 'all the stability, cleanliness, and archi¬
tectural beauties of the Loudon West End streets, with the gaiety
and brilliancy of the Parisian atmosphere'. It contains the East
and West Churches (with a tower in common; PI. B, 5), statues of
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and numerous elaborate granite
facades; while near its E. end stand the fine Municipal Offices
(PI. B, 5), the lofty tower (210 ft.) of which commands an exten¬
sive *View. In Castle St. (PI. B, 5), the E. continuation of Union
St., is the old Cross of Aberdeen. Broad St. (at No. 64 in which Lord
Byron lived with his mother in his boyhood) leads to the N. from
Union St. beside the Municipal Offices to Murischal College (PI. B, 5),
part of the University of Aberdeen, one of the four Universities of
Scotland (880 students'). Considerable additions were made to the
college-buildings in 1895, including the *Mitchell Tower (233 ft.)
and Hall (116 ft. long). Admission to the tower and hall daily,
from July to Sept. 11-12 and 2.30-3.30, other months daily 11-12,
Sat. 2.30-3.30. — To the N. of the W. part of Union St., behind
the Music Hall, rises the imposing spire (200 ft.) of the Roman
Catholic Church (PL 4; A, 5,6), the most beautiful of the numerous
church-steeples that form so conspicuous a feature in every view