550 Route 72. FORTH BRIDGE.
the deepest lake in Scotland (1009 ft.). 162 M. Morar (hotel). —
165 M. Mallaig (Station Hotel, R.4s. Gd., D. 5a.; Marine, L. 2s. Gd.,
temp.; Glasnacardach Inn, 1 M. to the S.), with a large pier.
Mail-steamers, in connection with the trains, ply hence daily to (8i/» hrs.;
fares 18s., 9s. 6d.) Stornoway (p. 543) and to (51/2 hrs.; fares 9s., 6s.) Portree
(p. 543), via Isle Ornsay, Kyle Akin, Broadford, and Raasay. Steamers to
Oban, see p. 542.
72. From Edinburgh to Aberdeen.
Of the alternative routes described below the third is much the finest
and should be preferred to the direct railway routes by all who have
sufficient time at their disposal. — Steamer from Leith, see p. 515.
a. North British Railway, via the Forth Bridge and Fifeshire.
131 M. Railway in 31/4-41/4 hrs. (fares 21s., 9s. 8d.). This is the shortest
and most direct route from Edinburgh to Aberdeen.
Edinburgh (Waverley Station), see p. 513. I73 M. Haymarket.
The line to Glasgow (R. 67) diverges to the left near (372 M.)
Saughton. — 972 M. Dalmeny, where the Glasgow trains join ours
(see p. 525), is the station for South Queensferry (p. 525).
The train now crosses the * Forth Bridge, pronounced by
M. Eiffel 'the greatest construction of the world' and undoubtedly
the most striking feat yet achieved by engineering in bridge-
building. Fine views up and down the river.
This wonderful bridge, the total length of which, including the ap¬
proaches, is 2765 yds., was erected in 1883-90, at a cost of over 3,000,CK_.
It is built on the 'cantilever and central girder system', the principle of
which is that of 'stable equilibrium', its own weight helping to maintain
it more firmly in position. Each of the main spans, 1700-1710 ft. in length
(100 ft. longer than that of Brooklyn Bridge), is formed of two cantilevers,
each 6S0 ft. long, united by a girder 350 ft. long. The steel towers from
which the cantilevers spring are 360 ft. high (not much lower than the
dome of St. Paul's) and are supported on granite piers, that in the middle
resting on the small island of Inchgarvie. The clear headway at high water
is 151 ft.; the deepest foundations are 88 ft. below high water. The total
weight of metal in the bridge is 50,000 tons, or five times as much as that
of the Britannia Bridge (p. 30i). The designers and constructors of the
bridge were Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker.
1174 M. North Queensferry lies at the N. end of the Forth
Bridge. 1374 M. Inverkeithing (hotel) is the junction of a line to
the N. to Dunfermline (for Perth, Stirling, etc.; see R. 73). The
Aberdeen train runs to the E. and skirts the pleasant grounds of
Donibrislle, seat of the Earl of Moray, on the N. bank of the estuary
of the Forth. — 1772 M. Aberdour (Woodside; Forth View), a
favourite little sea-bathing place, with an old castle and the ruins
of a Norman church, whence steamers ply to Leith (p. 515).
2072M.Burntislandf'Fort/iffo_;, a small seaport and watering-
place, is connected with (5 M.) Granton (p. 524) by a steam-ferry
(fares 10d., 5d.). In the firth, about halfway to Granton (to the left),
lies the fortified island of Inchkeith. — 22i/2 M. Kinghorn. —26 M.
Kirkcaldy (George; Amer. Agent, Mr. J. Lockhart Innes), a straggl¬
ing town of (1901) 34,064 inhab., extending along the shore for