History. EDINBURGH. 66. Route. 515
Cable Tramways (fares l-5d.). The central point is the Register House
(PL E, 3), whence lines radiate to Newington (PL F, 6) and Nether Liberton,
Morningside (PI. C, 6), Braid Hills (p. 523), Gorgie, Murrayfield, Pilrig St.
(PL F, 1; change for electric cars to Leith), and Portobello (p. 507) and
Joppa (p. 509; change for electric cars to Musselburgh and Levenhall). —
A circular tour, starting from the Register House, may De made round
the S. half of the city via, the North and South Bridges, Newington, Mor¬
ningside (Churchhill; change cars), the Lothian Road, and Princes St. (fares
4d.; good view of the city from the top of the cars). — Cable Tramways run
also from the foot of the Mound (PL D, 4) to George IV. Bridge (PI. E,4,5),
Lauriston, Melville Drive, and Marchmont Road ; from Hanover St. (Princes St.;
PL D, 4) to the Botanic Gardens and Golden Acre; and from Frederick Street
(Princes St.; P1.D,4) to Stockbridge (PI B, C, 2) and Comely Bank — Horse-
Cars run from Toll Cross (PL C, 5) to Colinlon Road, via Gilmore Place. 5 '
Omnibuses run from Haymarket Station (PL A, 5) to Corstorphine; from
Toll Cross to Gorgie Station; and from_a» Park St. (Stockbridge) to Leith. —
Brakes ply in summer from near the Register House to the Forth Bridge
and Queensferry (fare 1*.; return on Sun. 3*.), Roslin (fare 1*.), etc.
City Guides, with badges, 6d. per hr., 3-5s. per day (unnecessary).
Post & Telegraph Office (PL E, 3), at the E. end of Princes St.
Steamers. From Leith. To London, comp. p. 510; 2-3 times daily to
Aberdour; daily in summer to Stirling; 4-6 times weekly in summer to Aber¬
deen (fares 7s., 4*.); thrice weekly to Dundee; twice weekly to Antwerp (21.),
Cromarty (15s.), Hamburg (50s.), Inverness (10s.), Kirkwall (22s.), Lerwick
(26*.), Newcastle (7s.), Rotterdam (21.), Thurso (18s.), and Wick (13s.); once
weekly to Amsterdam (21.), Bergen (4L 7s. 6d.), Bremerhaven (21. 10s.),
Christiansand (31. 3s.), Copenhagen (31. 3s.), Stettin, Sunderland (Is.), and
Hull (10s.). Also excursion-steamers in summer to North Berwick, the Bass
Rock, the Isle of May, Elie, etc. — From Granton. To London, comp. p. 510;
to Burntisland (comp. p. 550) several times a day; Copenhagen (21.), the
Faroe Isles (31., return 51.) and Iceland (51., return Si.) once a month.
American Consul, Rufus Fleming, Esq., 8 York Buildings.
Principal Attractions. Princes Street; Scott Monument; Castle; Lawn-
market, High St., and Canongate; Holyrood; National Gallery; Calton Hill
(view); St. Giles's; St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral; Museum of Science & Art;
the Queen's Drive. These points may all be visited in one long day (9-10 hrs.),
but those who wish to see Edinburgh to advantage must devote at least
2-3 days to the town itself and 4-5 days to its environs.
Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and one of the most roman¬
tically beautiful cities in Europe, is finely situated on a series of
ridges, separated by ravines, about 2 M. to the S. of the Firth of
Forth (5-6 M. wide), of which charming views are obtained from the
higher parts of the town. Perhaps no fairer or more harmonious
combination of art and nature is to be found among the cities of
the world, and even the buildings of little or no beauty in them¬
selves generally blend happily with the surrounding scenery. The
population, excluding Leith, is (1905) 316,837. Edinburgh is the
seat of the administrative and judicial authorities of Scotland, and
is renowned for its excellent university and schools. It is also a
great centre of the printing, publishing, bookselling, brewing, and
distilling trades, but has few important manufactures. The stranger
is advised to begin his acquaintance with the 'Modern Athens' by
obtaining a general view of it from the Castle (best), the top of
the Scott Monument, the Calton Hill, or Arthur's Seat (p. 620).
History. The authentic history of Edinburgh begins about 617, when
Edwin, King of Northumbria, established a fortress on the castle-rock,