Y. Notes on the Gaelic Language.
The Gaelic of the Scottish Highlands is akin to the Welsh, and
substantially identical with the Erse of Ireland. Owing to the numerous
combinations of silent consonants and other causes, it is less easy, however,
to indicate its pronunciation than that of Welsh. It may, however, be
useful to bear in mind that the vowels have the Continental, not the
English value (comp. p. xxxii); and that the frequently occurring aspiration
of a consonant has the effect either of softening it or of effacing it altogether
(thus bh — v, dh = y, fh mute, and ch guttural). The ordinary tourist will,
however, find that English is always understood, though the enterprising
pedestrian may occasionally stumble upon a Gael ignorant of all save his
motber-tongue. The following is a short glossary of Gaelic roots of fre¬
quent recurrence in the names of places. Aber, mouth, confluence; achadh
(ach, auch), a field; alt, ault (genitive uilt), a brook; an, a diminutive
termination; ard, high; bal, baile, a village or place; ban, white; beag
(beg), little; beinn (ben), a mountain; breac (vreck, vrackie), speckled; cam,
cambus, crooked; ceann (kin, ken), head; clach, a stone, clachan (dim.),
a village; dal, a field; dearg, red; dubh (dhu), black; dun, a hill-fort; eas
(ess), waterfall; fad, fada, long;fionn (fyne), white, shining; garbh (garve),
rough, rugged; glas, gray; gorm, blue; innis (inch), island; inbhir (inver),
same as aber; cil (kil), cell, church, parish; coille (killie), wood; caol
(kyle), strait; lag, a hollow; linn, linne, a pool; mam, meall, a rounded
hill; mor (more), great; mue (gen. muic), a sow; cuach, quoich, a cup;
ross, a point; sruth, stru, struan, running water; tulloch (tilly, tully), a
knoll; tir (tyre), land; uisge (esk), water (usquebaugh, water of life,
64. From London to Edinburgh or Glasgow.
The traveller may choose between three different railway-routes for
his journey to Scotland. The fast trains between London and Edinburgh
take 8-10 hrs. Fares to Edinburgh bis. 6d., 32*. 8d.; to Glasgow 58*., 33*.;
reduced return-fares in summer. No second class. Sleeping Cars (5*.
extra) are attached to the night-expresses. The morning and afternoon-
expresses in both directions are corridor-trains with 1st and 3rd class
dining-cars (luncheon 1st cl. 2s. 6d.; 3rd cl. 2s.; tea 9d- and 6d.; dinner
3s. 6d. and 2s. 6d.). Luncheon-baskets (2s. 6d.-3».) may be obtained at any
of the. chief stations. — Steamers, see p. 510.
a. Via Leicester, Leeds, and Carlisle.
Midland and Nokth Beitish Railways ('Waverley Route") from St. Pan¬
cras Station to (406 M.) Edinburgh (Waverley Station) in 872-102/3 hrs.; to
(423 M.) Glasgow (St. Enoch Station) in 83/4-10 hrs.
From London to (308 M.) Carlisle, see R. 50. A short way
beyond Carlisle the line to Glasgow (Glasgow and South Western
Railway), described in R. 65, diverges to the left, while the Edin¬
burgh trains follow the line of the North British Co., running
through the 'Waverley District'. From (317!/2 M.) Longtown a
branch-line diverges to (4^2 M) Gretna Green (p. 511). To the
left lies Solway Moss, where the Scots were defeated by the English
in 1542. To the right, near (320 M.) Scotch Dyke, is Netherby
Hall, the scene of 'Young Lochinvar'. The train crosses the Esk
and the Liddel, and ascends the valley of the latter, skirting the
Cheviots (right). 322 M. Riddings is the junction of a line to
Canonbie and (7 M.) Langholm. At (329 M.) Kershope Foot we cross
the Kershope Burn and enter Scotland (Roxburghshire). — 332 M.