1UO5-1034. Malcolm II. conquers Lothian.
1034-1040. Duncan, gTandson of Malcolm II., is killed by —
1040-1057. Macbeth, who usurps the throne and proves himself an
able ruler. He falls in battle against the son of Duncan —
1058-1093. Malcolm III. Canmore, who gives shelter to Edgar Athelinq
and marries his sister Margaret (1068). The English language, English
customs, and English colonists begin to gain a footing in Scotland.
1107-1124. Alexander I. marries Sibylla, daughter of Henry I. of
1124-1153. David I., the 'Scottish Alfred', does much to promote the
civilisation of Scotland. He invades England, in support of Matilda, and
is defeated at the Battle of the Standard (1138; see p.-449).
1154-1165. Malcolm IV., the Maiden.
1165-1214. William the Lion is taken prisoner by Henry II. and has
to acknowledge his supremacy, but afterwards re-establishes his independ¬
ence. Alliance with France.
1214-1249. Alexander II. takes part with the English Barons against
1249-1289. Alexander III., a wise and good king, under whom Scotland
enjoys peace and prosperity. After his death and that of his grand¬
daughter and heiress, Margaret, the Maid of Norway (1290), the succes¬
sion to the crown is disputed by Baliol and Bruce. Edward I. of England
is appealed to and decides in favour of —
1292-1297. John Baliol, who, however, scarcely maintains a semblance
of independence and after a short resistance to Edward's pretensions is
carried prisoner to London (1297). William Wallace, the 'Man of the
People', rises against the English, and defeats them at Stirling Bridge,
but is finally captured by Edward I. and beheaded (1305).
1306-1329. Robert Bruce, however, succeeds as patriot-leader of the
Scots, finally secures the independence of Scotland by his victory at
Bannockburn (1314), and is recognised on all hands as king.
1329-1370. David II., the weak son of a great father, carries on an
unsuccessful war with England, is defeated at Neville's Cross (1346; p. 455),
and is kept prisoner by Edward III. for 11 years.
1370-1390. Robert II., son of Marjory, Bruce's daughter, is the first of
tbe Stuarts. Battle of Otterbourn (1388).
1390-1406. Robert III. also carries on war with England. Defeated
at Homildon Hill (1402). His son and successor —
1406-1437. James I., is taken prisoner by the English on his way to
France in 1405 and spends the first 18 years of his reign in captivity. The
Duke of Albany is appointed regent. Defeat of Donald, Lord of the Isles,
at Harlow (1412). James writes the 'King's Quhair' and other poems- His
reforms are in advance of the age and he is assassinated by conspirators
at Perth (see p. 553).
1437-1460. James II. stabs the Earl of Douglas, a dangerous and tur¬
bulent subject, at Stirling (1452; p. 535), and strengthens the royal author¬
ity. He is killed by the bursting of a gun at the siege of Roxburgh (p. 504).
14601488. James III. attempts to rule through favourites, who are
put to death by Angus 'Bell the Cat' and other conspirators. A rebellion
breaks out, and James is defeated by his nobles at Saucbieburn and slain.
1488-1513. James IV. marries Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., and
is slain at the disastrous battle of Flodden (p. 504).
1513-1542. James V. marries Mary of Guise. Represses the Border
Freebooters. Is defeated at Solway Moss (1542) and dies of a broken heart.
1542-1567. Mary Stuart marries first the Dauphin of France (1558),
then Damley (1565), and lastly Bothwell (1567). Defeat of the English at
Ancrum Moor (1544) and of the Scots at Pinkie (1547). Murder of Rizzio
(1566). Reformation in Scotland (1560 et seq.); John Knox. Mary, while
imprisoned in Lochleven Castle, abdicates in favour of her son (1567).
1567-1603. James VI. Defeat at Langside (1568) of Mary, who takes
refuge in England. Regencies of Moray (1568), Lennox (1570), Mar (1571),
and Morton (1572). Raid of Rulhven (1582). Queen Mary executed (1587). Gow-
rie Conspiracy (1600; see p. 553). James succeeds to the English throne.