456 Route 52. NEWCASTLE. From London
forms part of Newcastle. — We now cross the river by the High
Level Bridge (see p. 457) and reach Newcastle.
A 'New High Level Bridge is at present being constructed a little
higher up (to the left), which crosses the river in four spans, with a total
length of 1150 ft., leaving a clear headway of 83 ft. at highwater. This
bridge, which with its approaches is estimated to cost 500,000*., is expected
to be open in 1906, and will then obviate the necessity of trains from the
S. having to be drawn backwards out of the Central Station at Newcastle
on resuming their journey north (comp. p. 457).
268'/2_. Newcastle. — Hotels. Station Hotel (PI. a; C, 4), R. 4s.,
D. 3s. 6d., well spoken of; Grand (PI. b; D, 2); Metropole (PI. c; C, 4);
Crown (PI. d; C, 4); Douglas (PL e; C, 4), R. 4s., L. 2s. 6d.; County
(PL f; C, 4), R. 4s., D. 3s. 6d.; Central Exchange (PI. g; D, 3); Turk's
Head (PL h; D, 4); Rotal Exchange (PL 1; D, 3); York Temperance
(PL i; C, 4), R. 3s.; Clarendon Temperance , Clayton St.; Tyne Tem¬
perance (PI. k; D, 3). — Rail. Refreshmt. Rooms.
Electric Tramways run through the chief streets, to Gateshead (p. 455).
Jesmond (p. 457), etc. — Cab from the station to the town Is.; omn. 6d.
Theatres. Royal (PI. D, 3), Grey St.; Tyne (PI. C, 4), Westgate Road.
American Consul, Horace W. Metcalf, 6 Grey St.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a busy city, with (1901), 214,803 in¬
hab., lies on the left bank of the Tyne, 9 M. from its mouth , in
an extensive coal-field, which has made it one of the chief coal-ex¬
porting ports of Great Britain. It has also large ship - building
yards and manufactories of locomotives and iron goods.
Newcastle, which occupies the site of the Roman Pons jElii, was in
the Saxon period named Monk Chester, from the number of its monastic
institutions. It was also visited by numerous pilgrims to the Holy Well
of Jesus Mount (Jesmond, see p. 457). The present name came into use
after the erection of the castle by Robert Curthose (see below). Since
1S82 Newcastle has been the see of a bishop.
On the island platform of the Central Station (PI. C, 4) is preserved
'Stephenson's No. 1 Engine'. On issuing from the station we see in
front of us, to the left, St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral (PL C, 4),
a handsome modern building. We turn to the right, pass the Statue
of George Stephenson (d. 1848; PL D, 4), and proceed through
Collingwood St. At the end of this street, to the left, is the Town
Hall (PI. D, 4). To the right is the Church of St. Nicholas
(14th cent.; PI. D, 4), with a fine lantern-tower (194ft.).
St. Nicholas was raised to cathedral rank in 1882 (daily services at
8 and 5). — Among the monuments in the interior are those of a Cru¬
sader (14th cent.; in a small chapel off the S. aisle), Sir Matthew Ridley
(by Flaxman; N.W. pier at cross), and Admiral Collingwood (S.W. pier
at cross). The altar-piece is ascribed to Tintoretto. John Knox and George
Wishart were both for a time afternoon lecturers at this church. — No. 27
St. Nicholas Churchyard was the workshop of Thomas Bewick (tablet;
comp. p. 457).
On leaving the church we turn to the left and follow St.
Nicholas Buildings to the Black Gate (PL D, 4), built in 1248, and
originally one of the gates in the wall surrounding the Castle; the
upper story contains a collection of antiquities (10-5; 3d.). The
Castle (PI. D, 4) was founded in the 11th cent, by Robert Curthose
(p. 203), hut the Keep, the only part remaining, dates from 1172-77.