454 Route 52. DURHAM. From London
The W. part alone belonged to the original structure, in which the ancient
Bishops' Seat of stone, discovered among the foundations, has been re¬
placed. — Through the "Prior's Door (late-Norman) at the E. end of the
S. aisle of the nave, we enter the Cloisters (1368-1498). The window-
tracery was renewed last century. In the centre of the cloister-garth is
the Monks' Lavatory.
The Domestic Buildings of the Benedictine Monastery still remain
in excellent order. To the S.E. of the cloisters is the Priory (now the
Deanery). On the W. the cloisters are adjoined by the Dormitory (ca.
1400), now the New Library, a magnificent room, almost in its original
condition. To the S. of the cloisters is the Refectory, now known as the
Old Library, which contains several valuable MSS. and the interesting
relics found in the coffin of St. Cuthbert (p. 453) in 1827, including remains
of Anglo-Saxon vestments described by Mr. Street as 'perhaps the most
exquisitely delicate work in existence'. The early-Norman Crypt below
this room is older than any part of the cathedral itself. The Monks'
Kitchen, adjoining the S.E. corner of the Dormitory, is a tine octagonal
structure of about 1380. The Great Gateway, on the E. side of the Abbey
Yard, dates from about 1500.
To the N. of the cathedral, on the other side of the Palace
Green and on the neck of the peninsula, rises the Castle (adm. for
1-3 pers. Is.), originally erected by William the Conqueror in 1072,
rebuilt by Bishop Hugh of Puiset about a century later, and sub¬
sequently added to and altered. It is now occupied by University
College, a part of Durham University, established in 1833.
The most interesting part of the interior is the Norman work of Hugh
of Puiset, including a fine arcade and a "Doorway resembling the Prior's
Door in the cathedral (see above). These are now seen in a gallery built
in front of Hugh's work in the 16th century. Visitors should also ask to
see the 'Norman Gallery' on the upper floor, close to the students' dor¬
mitory. On the way to the Keep (14th cent.), the top of which commands
a fine view, is an early '■Norman Chapel'. The Dining Hall (14th cent.)
and the Black Staircase of carved oak (17th cent.) are also noticeable.
Most of the other buildings round Palace Green also belong to the
University. On the W. side are the Exchequer and Bishop Cosin's Library.
— Besides University College, the University comprises Hatfield Hall, in
the North Bailey, and a house for women students.
In the South Bailey, near the cathedral, is the curious little
church of St. Mary the Less (12th cent.), lately almost entirely
rebuilt. Following the same street towards the S., we reach the
Water Gate and a fragment of the old City Wall. — In the Market
Place, to the N. of the castle, are the Town Hall, the modern
Church of St. Nicholas, a Memorial Fountain, and a Statue of the
Marquis of Londonderry. From this point Silver St. leads to the S.
to Framwellgate Bridge (rebuilt in the 15th cent.), which affords a
fine view of the cathedral and castle. Beyond the bridge King
Street and North Road (with the Durham Miners' Hall) ascend to the
station. In the Old Elvet are the County Council Buildings (1898).
Environs. A pleasant short excursion may be made to Finchale Priory,
4 M. to the N. (4V2 M. by the highroad). We cross the Framwellgate
Bridge and follow the Framwellgate to the right. At the (V« M.) end of
this street we bend to the right and take the road along or near the river,
which soon becomes a green lane and finally a field-path. After about
V2 M. we see to the right, on the other side of the river, the red-tiled
Kepier Hospital (12th cent.), with its picturesque gateway. After '/* M.
more we turn to the left, ascending towards a farm, which we leave to
our left, passing through a wicket-gate. We then cross a (7:/2 min.) stile