408 Route 47. CARLISLE. From Liverpool
101 M. Penrith (George, R. 4s., D. 4s.; Crown, R. 3s., D. 6s. 3d.;
Rail. Rfmt. Rooms), an ancient market-town, with 9182 inhab. and
the remains of an old castle, is the junction of the line to Keswick
and Cockermouth (see below), and of the 'Eden Valley line' to Ap¬
pleby (p. 440) and Kirkby Stephen (p. 440). A small inn, named the
Gloucester Arms, contains a room in which Richard III. once slept,
and some good old oaken panelling. Penrith Beacon (937 ft.),
crowning a wooded height to the N.E. of the town (25 min. from
the station), commands a good view over Ullswater.
About 4 M. to the N.E. of Penrith is Eden Hall, the ancient seat of
the Musgraves, still containing the curious old glass goblet, the legend
attached to which is celebrated in Uhland's well-known ballad, 'The Luck
of Eden Hall' ('Das Gliick von Edenhall'). — About 3 M. farther on, at
Salkeld, is a Druidical circle known as Long Meg and her Daughters.
From Penrith to Keswick, Cockermouth, and Workington, 39 M.,
railway in 0/4 hr. (fares 7s. 2d., 3s. 8d., 3s. 3d.; to Keswick 3s. 9d., Is. 8d.,
Is. 6d.). As we start we have a view, to the left, of the heights around
Ullswater. 9'/2 M. Troutbeck (inn) is one of the starting-points for a visit
to Ullswater (p. 423). The Saddleback (p. 433), seen on the right, may
be ascended from (UV» M.) Threlkeld (see p. 433). To the left opens the
Vale of St. John (p. 430). Beyond Threlkeld the train passes through the
charming valley of the winding Greta. — 18 M. Keswick, see p. 426. —
The train now runs through the Vale of Keswick to (20 M.) Braithwaite,
beyond which it skirts the W. bank of Bassenthwaite Lake (p. 434). On the
other side of the lake towers Skiddaw (p. 433). 25V2 M. Bassenthwaite Lake
Station (Pheasant Inn). — 30V2 M. Cockermouth (Globe; Reay's Temperance),
with the relics of a Norman castle, was the birthplace of Wordsworth,
who dedicated a well-known sonnet to his native place. His father is
buried in the church. Lowes W'ater (p. 427) is 8 M. to the S. — 39 M. Work¬
ington, see p. 411. The trains go on to (7 M.) Whitehaven (p. 411).
From Penrith to Pooley Bridge (Ullswater), see p. 423.
119 M. Carlisle. — Hotels. "County & Station Hotel (PL a; C, 5),
connected with the station by a covered passage, R. 4-5s.; "Crown & Mitre
(PL b; C, 4), rebuilt, R. from 4s., D. from 3s.; Grand Central (PL c; C, 4),
R. from 3s., D. 4s. 6d.; Bush (PI. d; C, 4), R. 4s. 6d., D. 3s., near the station;
Red Lion (PI. e; C, 5), Botchergate; Graham's (PL f; C, 5), Victoria (PL g;
C, 4), two tern perance hotels. — Rail. Refreshment Rooms.
Post Office (PI. C, 4), Lowther St. — American Agent, T. S. Strong.
Carlisle, an ancient border-city with 45,478inhab., is pleasantly
situated on a gentle eminence at the confluence of three small rivers,
the Eden, the Caldew, and the Petteril. It is the county-town of
Cumberland, the see of a bishop, and an important railway-centre
(comp. RR.50, 53, 64a). Its industries include colour-printing, and
the making of biscuits, textile fabrics, and iron.
Carlisle, the British Caer Luel, and the Roman Luguvallium or Lugu-
ballia, is the only purely English city which retains its ancient British
name. At the time of the Saxon invasion it formed part of the kingdom
of Strathclyde, and it withstood the invaders till the 7th century. It
seems to have been destroyed by the Danes 200 years later, and to have
remained almost deserted until William Rufus made it tbe defence of the
English border and erected its castle. The bishopric was founded in 1133.
At a later period it was an important border-fortress and city of refuge
for the surrounding country. Carlisle submitted to the Young Pretender in
1745 and was taken by the Hanoverians. Comp. Carlisle', by the Rev. Man-
dell Creighton ('Historic Towns' series; 1889). — Roman Wall, see p. 460.