CARNFOltTH. 47. Route. 407
Rail. Rfmt. Rooms), the county-town of Lancashire, with 40,329
inhab., lies near the mouth of the Lune. It has two stations,
the Castle Station (L. & N. W. It.) and Green Ayres (Mid.), about
1/2 M. apart. The Castle, to a great extent rebuilt, but still retain¬
ing its ancient keep with a turret known as 'John of Gaunt's Chair',
is now the gaol. Adjoining it is the Church of St. Mary (15th cent.),
containing good stained glass, some fine oak-carvings, and a few
interesting brasses. The Storey Art Gallery was opened in 1891.
To the left of the line, before Lancaster, is the Royal Albert Asylum
for Imbeciles, and to the right is Ripley Hospital, erected for orphan
children at a cost of 100,000J.
Lancaster occupies the site of a Roman station. It was given by Ed¬
ward III. to his son, 'Old John of Gaunt, time-honoured Lancaster', and the
duchy of Lancaster is still attached to the Crown. Dr. Whewell and Sir
Richard Owen, the comparative anatomist, were natives of Lancaster.
From Lancaster a tramway and a branch-railway run to the W. to
(S M.) Morecambe (Midland, R. 4s., D. 4s. 6d.; King's Arms; Crown; West
View; Elms, R. 3s. 6d., D. 4s. 6d.; Imperial; Grand), a thriving watering-
place, with a promenade, two piers, two theatres, a winter-garden, etc.
Morecambe may also be reached by the Midland Railway from Hellifield
(see p. 439) and has a motor-car service to Heysham (p. 439; fare 3d.). —
Another short branch-line runs from Lancaster to Glasson Dock, a port on
the estuary of the Lune.
At (53 M.) Hest Bank diverges another branch to (3 M.) More¬
cambe (see above). View, to the left, of Morecambe Bay. — 56 M.
Carnforth (Station Hotel; Rail. Refreshmt. Rooms) is the junction
of the Furness Railway to Barrow, the Lake District, and Whitehaven
(see R. 48) and of the Midland Railway to Wennington and Helli¬
field (p. 439). — 69 M. Oxenholme (Rail. Rfmt. Rooms) is the
junction of the branch to (3 M.) Kendal and (11 M.) Windermere
Kendal (Commercial; King's Arms), the chief town of Westmorland
(14,183 inhab.), is seen below to the left as we proceed. It still carries on
the manufacture of woollen cloth established by Flemish weavers in the
14th cent., but 'Kendal Green' is no longer made. On a hill to the E. of the
town are the ruins of a Castle, in which Queen Catherine Parr was born.
From (78 M.) Low Gill (*View to the right) a line runs to the
right to Ingleton (p. 440). 80 M. Tebay (Rail. Rfmt. Rooms) is the
junction of the N.E. line to Darlington (p. 450) and Bishop Auck¬
land (see pp. 451, 455). — Beyond Tebay the line rapidly ascends
with Shap Felis on the left, at the foot of which lies Shap Wells,
with the large Shap Spa Hotel (see below). From Shap Summit,
the highest point of the line (1000 ft.) the train dashes down the
steep gradient to (89 M.) Shap (Shap Spa Hotel, 3 M. to the S.;
Greyhound, at the station). Hawes Water (p. 425) is 5!/2 M. to
the W. of Shap; and Kidsty Pike, High St., and other summits of
the Lake District are conspicuous to the left. About 2 M. to the
S.W. (1.) of (97 M.) Clifton is Lowther Castle (Earl of Lonsdale).
A little farther on we have a glimpse on the right of Brougham,
Hall, the home of Lord Brougham.