356 Route 42. BOLTON-LE-MOORS. Environs
240 ft. high and a fine W. front, is much obscured by adjoining
To the N.W., skirted by the Irwell, lies Peel Park (PI. A, 2), a
public park, prettily laid out, containing a museum and a library. The
Museum is a large building in the Renaissance style, with a fair collection
of antiquities and other objects of interest. The Art Gallery contains
modern paintings and sculptures. The building also includes the Salford
Free Library. — The Whitworth Park, near Oxford St. (beyond PL F. 6),
24 acres in extent, a bequest of Sir Joseph Whitworth, was opened in 1890.
The Whitworth Institute, in the park, with a picture gallery, a commercial
museum, etc., was founded for the promotion of the fine arts.
Manchester possesses several other public parks, some of them of con¬
siderable size. Botanic Gardens, see p. 351. — "Bellevue Gardens, see
p. 351. The celebrated attempt to rescue Fenian prisoners in 1867 was
made near the old Bellevue Prison, in the Hyde Road.
The "Manchester Ship Canal, one of the boldest modern experiments
in inland navigation, which has practically placed Manchester among
the principal seaports of Great Britain, was opened for traffic in 1894.
The canal, which is 35l/2 M. long and 28 ft. deep, with a minimum bottom
width of 120 ft., has five locks, and cost 15,000,000*. In 1904 the total
weight of merchandise traffic carried on the Canal was nearly 4,000,COO tons,
and the waterway is navigated regularly by vessels of 8000 tons and up¬
wards. The canal begins near Trafford Road Swing Bridge (conveniently
reached by tramway from Deansgate) and enters the Mersey at Eastham
(p. 339). The area of the dock-estate at Manchester is 406>/2 acres, includ¬
ing a water-space of 120 acres, and a quay-frontage of 6'/2 M. The large
grain elevator has a capacity of 40,000 tons. The locks and sluices on the
canal are among the most important works of the kind ever executed.
Comp. p. 339.
From Manchester to Bolton and Blackburn, 25 M., Lancashire and
Yorkshire Railway in 3/4-li/2hr. (fares 4s. 6d., 2s. 3d., 2s. 0'/2d.). — lO'/aM.
Bolton-le-Moors (Swcm; Victoria; Commercial, pens. 10s.; Rail. Rfmt. Rooms),
a prosperous town of (1901) 168,205 inhab., with large cotton-mills, bleach¬
ing and dye-works, engine-factories, and iron-foundries. The Grammar
School, founded in 1641, has an old 'chained' library. Crompton (1763-1827),
the inventor of the spinning-mule, resided at Bolton and is commemorated
by a statue in Nelson Square. In the vicinity are the (2 M.) Hall-in-the-
Wood, an old timber house where Crompton perfected his invention, and
(3 M.) Smithills Hall, an interesting old manor-house. — 25 M. Blackburn
(Old Bull, R. 4s., D. from 3s. 6d.; White Bull, pens, from 10s. 6d.; Rail.
Rfmt. Rooms), a well-built industrial town of (1901) 127,527 inhab., the
staple products of which are cottons, calico, and muslin. Hargreaves
(d. 1788), the inventor of the spinning-jenny, and John Morley, the states¬
man and author, were born here. A. statue of Gladstone was erected at
Blackburn in 1899.
[From Blackburn branch-lines diverge on the left to Preston (p. 404) and
on the right to Burnley (p. 357; 97,044 inhab. in 1901). The Art Gallery of
Burnley is installed in Townely Hall, a historic mansion. The main line goes
on to Hellifield (p. 439), via Walley (Whalley Arms), with a ruined abbey,
and Clitheroe (Swan), with a ruined castle. About 5 M. to the N.W. of
Whalley is the Jesuit college of Stonyhurst (250 pupils), containing a
museum with some interesting historical relics, some fine illuminated MSS.,
a Roman altar, and a collection of paintings. From Clitheroe pleasant
excursions may be made in the valley of the Ribble and to the Hill of
Pendle, a famous haunt of Lancashire witches.]
From Manchester to Bury and Bacup. 22 M., Lancashire and Yorkshire
Railway in "/i-LVz hr. (fares 3s. 4d., ls.9d., Is. 7d.). — 91/2 M. Bury (Derby,
R. 3s., D.2s.6d.), a flourishing manufacturing town with (1901) 58,028 inhab.,
owes its prosperity to the introduction of calico-printing by the father of Sir
Robert Peel. A statue in the town commemorates Sir Robert Peel (1788-
1850), who was born in the vicinity. — 13'/2M. Ramsboltom, another manu¬
facturing town, was the residence of the Messrs. Grant, the originals of