352 Route 42. MANCHESTER Royal Infirmary.
manufacture of woollen and linen goods having, according to report, been
introduced by Flemish immigrants in the time of Edward III. Under
Henry VIII. (1509-47) Manchester appears as the principal town of Lan¬
cashire, but its size cannot have been very great, as even in 1720 it did
not contain 10,000 inhabitants. After the middle of the 18th cent, its pro¬
gress began to be more rapid, and the population rose from 20,000 in 17G0
to 94,000 in 1801. The first application of steam to machinery for spin¬
ning cotton was made here in 1789, and gave a great impetus to the cotton-
manufacture. The advance was aided by the construction of the Bridge-
water Canal (see p. 349) to Liverpool; in 1830 the Manchester and Liver¬
pool railway (see p 349) was opened; and in 1894 a 'Ship Canal', con¬
necting Manchester with the sea was opened for traffic (see p. 356). In
1894 the 'Thirlmere Water scheme' (p. 418) was completed. Comp. W. E.
A. Axon's 'Annals of Manchester' (1886).
The name Manchester School began to be used some 65 years ago
to designate the political party that agitated for the repeal of the corn-
laws and for the general recognition of the principles of free trade.
The chief manufacturing town of England very naturally became the
centre of the movement, and the head-office of the Auti-Corn-Law League
was established in Newall Buildings, Market St. (comp. p. 355). Richard
Cobden, the leader of the party, was a partner in a Manchester firm of
cotton-printers, and in 1839 the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, at
his instigation, opened tbe free-trade campaign by petitioning Parliament
against the corn-laws. After the triumph of the principles of free trade,
the name Manchester School stuck to the political party grouped round
Cobden and Bright, though the city of Manchester was by no means in¬
variably of the same mind as these politicians. The leading principles
of this school may be described as the development of complete free¬
dom of trade and unrestricted competition, and the adhesion as far as
practicable to a policy of non-intervention in foreign affairs. The ex¬
pression has become domiciled in several Continental states, where it is
sometimes used as a term of reproach for those who prefer peace and
material welfare to the honour of their country.
No traveller should quit Manchester without having seen one at least
of its great factories. A letter of introduction is desirable; but those who
have none may send a written request to the head of the firm whose estab¬
lishment they wish to inspect. Among the most interesting manufactories
are the following: Armitage's Cotton Spinning Mills at Pendleton; Na-
smyth's Bridgewater Foundry at Patricroft (p. 349); Armstrong & Whit-
worth's Ordnance and Machine Works at Openshaw; S. & J. Watt's Honie
Trade Warehouse, Portland St.
We begin our walks through Manchester at the London Road
Station (PL G, H, 5; p. 350), near which most of the principal
hotels are situated. London Road is prolonged towards the N. by
Piccadilly (PL G, 4), one of the chief streets of the city.
Here, to the left, rises the Royal Infirmary (PI. G, 4), a large
building founded in 1753, but since extensively altered and pro¬
vided with a handsome Ionic portico. One wing was erected partly
from the proceeds of a concert given by Jenny Lind. About 20,000
patients are annually treated here.
The pavement in front is adorned with four bronze statues. To the
left is the Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), by Noble, surrounded by four
allegorical figures. — In the centre are statues of Dalton (1766-1844),
founder of the atomic theory, and James Watt (1736-1819), the inventor of the
steam engine. — To the right is Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850), by Marshall.
Piccadilly is continued by Market Strbbt (PI. E, F, 3), the
main artery of traffic in Manchester. To the left, halfway down
the street, is the Post Office (PI. F, 3). Market St. ends opposite