History. MANCHESTER. 42. Route. 351
Electric Tramways. Manchester is covered with a network of tram¬
ways, traversing the main streets and extending to all the suburbs (fares
Post and Telegraph Office (PL F, 3), corner of Market St. and Spring
Gardens. Numerous branch-offices and pillar letter-boxes.
Theatres. Royal (PI. E, 5), Peter St., stalls 6s., dress circle 5s., upper
circle 2s. 6d., pit Is.; Prince's (PL E, 5), Oxford St.; Gaiety (PL E, 4),
Peter St., dress circle and stalls 5s.; Prince of Wales, Liverpool St., Sal¬
ford; Queen's (PL E, 4), Bridge St., dress circle 2s., pit 6d.; St. James's
(PI. F, 5), Oxford St. — Music Halls. Palace (PL F, 5), Oxford St.; Grand,
Tivoli, Peter St.; adm. l-5s.; Hippodrome, Oxford St.
Concerts. Classical Concerts, Free Trade Hall (PL E,4), every Thurs.
in winter; Manchester Gentlemen's Concerts, in the Midland Hall; Manchester
Vocal Society's Concerts.
Popular Resorts. "Bellevue Gardens, Longsight, to the S.E., with
zoological collection, dancing-saloon, restaurant, fire-works, lake for boating,
etc., much frequented by the lower classes. They may be reached by
tram or by train from London Road to Longsight. — Botanic Gardens,
Chester Road, Old Trafford, to the S.W.
Baths. Herrioti's, 10 S. Parade, St. Mary's, Deansgate; Allison, 40 Hyde
Road; Constantine, 21 Oxford St. — Corporation Baths, in Store St., Leaf St.,
Uaker St., and Osborne St.
American Consul, Wm. H. Bradley; vice-consul, John W. Thomas.
Manchester, the chief industrial town of England, and the great
metropolis of the cotton-manufacture, is situated on the river
Irwell, a tributary of the Mersey, in a gently undulating plain.
Manchester proper lies on the left bank of the Irwell, which here
receives two smaller streams, the Medlock and the Irk; but in
ordinary speech the name is used to include Salford, on the oppo¬
site bank, which really forms one town with Manchester, though
a distinct municipality, returning its own members to Parliament.
In 1901 the population of the united city was 764,925 (Man¬
chester, 543,969; Salford, 220,956). The population includes a
large German element, whose influence may perhaps be traced in the
zeal and success with which music is cultivated here. Besides cotton
goods, Manchester also manufactures large quantities of silk, worsted,
chemicals, and machinery. Its chief interest for the stranger lies in
its huge manufactories and warehouses, and in the bustling traffic of
its streets. Most of the streets of the older part of the town, centering
in the Town Hall, are narrow, but many improvements have recently
been effected. The suburbs on the other hand, such as Cheetham
Hill, Broughton, Old Trafford, and Fallowfield, are generally well
laid out and handsqmely built. Many of the largest mills and fac¬
tories are now in the towns around Manchester, and the city itself
is becoming more of an emporium and less of an actual centre of
manufacture. The rivers unfortunately do not add much to the at¬
tractions of the town, as their waters are black with mill-refuse.
Since 1847 Manchester has been the seat of a bishop.
History. Manchester occupies the site of the Mancunium of the Ro¬
mans. In the 10th cent, we hear of Edward the Elder repairing and gar¬
risoning the village of Manigceaster, and a line of Norman barons seems
to have derived their title from this place. Towards the end of the 14th
cent, it was already known as au industrial place of some importance, the