270 Route 36. BIRMINGHAM. St. Martin's.
tection of the De Berminghams, whose connection with it ceases in 1545.
In 1538 it is described by Leland as a good market town with many
smiths 'that use to make knives and all mannour of cuttinge tooles and
many loriners that make bittes and a great many naylors'. In 1643 Bir¬
mingham was taken and partly burned by Prince Rupert. Under Charles II.
it advanced rapidly, and its manufactures of firearms became considerable.
Birmingham owes its modern importance chiefly to the improvements in
steam-machinery carried out here by Watt and Boulton at the end of the
18th century, and to the use it was thus enabled to make of the adjacent
fields of coal and iron. In 1700 it contained only 15,000 inhab.; in 1801,
73,670; in 1841, 182,892; and in 1881, 400,774. Its main interest to
tourists is centred in a visit to some of its large industrial establish¬
ments, most of which are willingly shown on previous application,
especially to anyone provided with an introduction. The industries
of Birmingham employ in all about 100,000 work-people and produce
goods to the annual value of 4 or 5 millions sterling. About 10,000 are
engaged in the manufacture of guns and rifles, producing upwards of
600,000 gun-barrels yearly. No fewer than 4 million military rifles were
proved here in 1855-64 (including the period of the Crimean War), and 770,000
guns were sent from Birmingham to the United States during the Civil War.
Among the most interesting manufactories are the steel-pen works of Gillott
& Son, Graham St. (PL I; B, 4), and those of Messrs. Perry, 36 Lancaster St.
(PL I; C, 3); the 'Regent Works' of Manton, Shakespeare, & Co., Clissold St.
(PL I; A, 3), for making buttons ; the electro-plate manufactory of Elkington
& Co., Newhall St. (PL H; D, 1); the glass and crystal works of Osier
Broad St. (PL I; B, 4); the lighthouse lens and plate-glass works of Chanci
Brothers & Co., Smethwick; Hardman's stained-glass works in Newhall
Hill (PI. I; B, 4); the Gun-Barrel Proof-House, Banbury St. (PI. I; D, 4);
the bronze-foundry and art metal-works of Winfield & Co., Cambridge St.
(PL II; B, 1); the papier-mache works of McCallum & Hodson, Summer
Row (PL II; C, 1); and the Birmingham Small Arms Factory at Small-
heath. Other important branches of industry are the rolling and stamping
of iron and other metals, the manufacture of iron roofs and girders, the
making of steam-engines, machinery, tools, bolts, screws, rivets, wire,
pins, and small steel goods of all descriptions, jewellery, and the pro¬
duction of chemicals. At Beaton's Mint and Metal Works, in Icknield St.
(PL I; B, 3), a great part of the bronze and copper money of England and
many other countries is coined. The same firm manufactures seamless
copper tubes. — A lively account of Birmingham and its industries is
given in Elihu Burrit's 'Walks in the Black Country'.
The only public building in Birmingham that has any claim to
antiquity is the *Church of St. Martin (PI. II; E, 5), an imposing
Dec. edifice, in the Bull Ring, originally dating from the 13th cent.,
but rebuilt in 1873. It contains the tombs of some of the De Ber¬
minghams (see above) and has some good stained-glass windows.
In the Bull Ring, to the N. of the church, is a monument to Nelson.
From St. Martin's, High St. leads to the N., passing the large
Market Hall on the left. Farther on, to the left, diverges NbwStebet
(PI. II; E, 4, D, 3), the principal business-street of the town, with
most of the best shops. In it, immediately to the left, is the
handsome modern Tudor building, by Barry, in which the Grammar
School (PI. II; E, 4), founded by Edward VI. in 1552, is now in¬
stalled. Its endowments yield upwards of 26,OOOi. yearly, and several
branch-schools both for boys and for girls have been opened. Ad¬
jacent, also to the left,isthe Exchange, at the corner of Stephenson
Place, a short street leading to the New St. Station (p. 268). Oppo¬
site diverges Corporation St. (p. 272). New Street, farther on,