St. John's. OXFORD. 33. Route. 249
that almost nothing remains of the original structure. To the N.
of the church stands the Martyrs' Memorial (PL D, 3), designed
by Sir G. G. Scott and erected in 1841 to the memory of Cranmer,
Latimer, and Ridley, who were burned in front of Balliol College
in 1555 and 1556. The monument is in the richest Gothic style,
and is adorned with statues of the three martyrs, by Weekes. —
To the N.W. of the Memorial, at the corner of St. Giles Street and
Beaumont Street, is the Taylor Institution (PL D, 3), built in
1845 for the teaching of modern languages. Immediately behind,
and forming part of the same pile, are the *University Galleries
(PL C, 3), which have recently been considerably enlarged and now
accommodate also the *Ashmolean Museum. The entrance is in
Beaumont St. (open daily 11-4, adm. 3d.; Sat. 2-4, free).
The original collection of curiosities, formed by a Dutchman named
Tradescant and known as 'Tradescant's Ark', was acquired by Elias Ashmole
(1617-92), who, adding some collections of his own, presented the whole to
the University in 1679. In 1874 the museum was removed from the Old
Ashmoleau Museum (p. 243) to its present home, where it has been in¬
corporated with the University collections of sculptures and casts and
enlarged by valuable bequests of art objects. It is now one of the most
important museums of art and archteology in the country.
On the Ground Floor and in the Basement are casts from the antique,
the original models of Chantrey's busts and statues, and some of the
Arundel Marbles, a collection of ancient sculptural fragments and inscriptions
formed by an Earl of Arundel in the 17th century. On tbe groundfloor
is also the * Westwood Collection of Fictile Ivories.
First Floor. The Picture Gallery here includes several portraits by
H.Herkomer; some fine water-colours by Turner (the gift of John Rnskin),
De Wint, and F. Mackenzie; a very valuable series of drawings (157 by
Raphael, 53 by Michael Angela); etchings by Rembrandt and others; and
a good collection of paintings by ancient and modern masters, including
the Combe Bequest of works by Holman Hunt, Millais, and W. Collins,
and a collection of miniatures.
The rooms behind the picture-gallery accommodate the remaining por¬
tion of the Ashmolean Museum. In the small anteroom adjoining the main
picture-gallery are glass-cases containing historical relics and curiosities,
including Guy Fawkes's lantern, the iron-lined hat of Bradshaw the regicide,
and personal memorials of various sovereigns. The next room is devoted
to the "Fortnum Collection of majolica, bronzes, finger-rings, and other
mediseval and Renaissance art-objects. In the third room are Greek and
Roman terracottas, vases, bronzes, etc. The last room includes valuable
collections of Prehistoric, Anglo-Saxon, Egyptian, and Oriental Art. In
this room are shown also 'King Alfred's Jewell' (perhaps the handle of an
rFStil or pointed book-marker) and watches which belonged to Queen Eliza¬
beth and Oliver Cromwell. — On the groundfloor of the S.W. wing is the
Rnskin Drawing School (adm. by special permission only).
Nearly opposite the Taylor Institution, in St. Giles St., is St. John's
College (PL D, 3), founded in 1555.
The old quadrangle belonged to the College of St. Bernard, founded
by Archbishop Chichele about 1440; the Hall is of the same period, hut
has been restored. The Chapel, consecrated in 1530, was restored in 1843.
From the first quadrangle a vaulted passage with delicate fan-tracery leads
to the second quadrangle, built mainly by Archbishop Laud (1631), Pre¬
sident of St. John's, who is buried in the chapel. The S. and E. sides
are occupied by the library. The oriel windows on the garden-side are
very picturesque. The * Gardens of St. John's, with their beautiful lawns,
are among the finest in Oxford. The Library contains several relics of