OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY. xi.xl
1688-1702. William III. and Mary II. William of Orange, with his
wife, the eldest daughter of James II., now ascends the throne. The
Declaration of Rights. Battles of Killiecrankie and The Boyne. Grand
Alliance against Louis XIV. Peace of Ryswick (1697). First Partition
Treaty (1698). Second Partition Treaty (1700). Act of Settlement (1701).
1702-1714. Anne, younger daughter of James II., completes the fusion
of England and Scotland by the union of their parliaments. Marlborough's
victories of Blenheim, Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet. Capture of
Gibraltar. The poets Pope, Addison, Swift, Prior, and Allan Ramsay.
Hanovekian Dtnastv (1714 et seq.).
1714-1727. George I. succeeds in right of his descent from James I.
Rebellion in Scotland (in favour of the Pretender) quelled. Sir Robert
Walpole, prime minister. Daniel Defoe.
1727-1760. George II. Rebellion in favour of the Young Pretender,
Charles Edward Stuart, crushed at Culloden (1746). Canada taken from the
French. William Pitt, Lord Chatham, prime minister; Richardson, Fielding,
Smollett, Sterne, novelists; Thomson, Young, Gray, Collins, Gay, poets.
1760-1820. George III. American War of Independence. War with
France. Victories of Nelson at Aboukir and Trafalgar, and of Wellington
in Spain and at Waterloo. British conquests in India. The younger Pitt,
prime minister; Edmund Burke; Charles Fox; Shelley and Keats, poets;
Adam Smith's 'Wealth of Nations' (1776).
1820-1830. George IV. Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill. Daniel
O'Connell. The English aid the Greeks in the War of Independence. Victory
of Navarino. Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Soulhey, Lamb.
1830-1837. William IV. Abolition of slavery. Reform Bill.
1837-1901. Victoria, niece of William IV. Repeal of the Corn Laws
(1846). Crimean War (1854). Indian Mutiny (1857). Confederation of Ca¬
nada (1867). Second Reform Bill (1867). War with the Transvaal (1899-
1901). Darwin's 'Origin of Species' (1859). Peel, Russell, Melbourne, Palmer-
ston, Disraeli (Beaconsfield), Gladstone, John Bright, Cobden, statesmen;
Tennyson and Browning, poets; Dickens, Thackeray, George Eliot, Meredith,
novelists; Macaulay, Carlyle, Freeman, historians; Ruskin; Herbert Spencer.
The present sovereign of Great Britain is —
King Edward VII, born 9th Nov., 1841; married, on 10th March, 1863,
to Alexandra (b. Dec. 1st, 1844), eldest daughter of King Christian IX. of
Denmark; ascended the throne Jan. 22nd, 1901.
The children of this marriage are: —
(1) Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, horn 8th Jan., 1864; died 4th
(2) George Frederick, Prince of Wales, Heir Apparent to the throne,
born 4th June, 1865; married Prince Victoria Mary of Teck, 6th July, 1893.
(3) Louise, born 20th Feb., 1867; married to the Duke of Fife, 27th
(4) Victoria, born 6th July, 1868.
(5) Maud, born 26th Nov., 1869; married to Prince Charles of Denmark,
now King Haakon VII. of Norway, 22nd July, 1896.
(6) Alexander, born 6th April, 1871; died 7th April, 1871.
VTII. Wales and the Welsh Language.
The formerly independent Principality of Wales (Welsh Cymru),
with an area of 7467 sq. M. and (1901) 1,720,609 inhab., has been
an integral and undisputed part of the British monarchy since 1535.
Wales is by far the most mountainous part of South Britain, fully
one-quarter of its surface being incapable of cultivation, and it con¬
tains, especially in its N. half, a great abundance of picturesque
scenery (comp. R. 40). In all essential particulars travelling in