OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
denly in tbe Tower (1471). Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence, is
said to have been drowned in a butt of malmsey.
1483. Edward V., the youthful son of Edward IV., is declared ille¬
gitimate, and murdered in the Tower, along with his brother, by his
uncle the Duke of Gloucester, who takes possession of the throne as —
ll83-148f>. Richard III., but is defeated and slain at Bosworlh by Henry
Tudor. Fori of Richmond, a scion of the House of Lancaster.
House of Tudor (1485-1603).
1485-1509. Henry VII. marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., and
so puts an end to the Wars of the Roses. The pretenders Lambert Sim-
nel and Perkin Warbeck.
1509-1547. Henry VIII., married six times (to Catherine of Aragon,
Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Cath¬
erine Parr). Battles of the Spurs and Flodden. Separation of the Church
of England from that of Rome. Dissolution of monasteries and perse¬
cution of the Papists. Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell, all-power¬
ful ministers. Whitehall and St. James's Palace built.
1547-1553. Edward VI. encourages the Reformed faith.
1553-1558. Mary I. causes Lady Jane Grey, whom Edward had ap¬
pointed his successor, to be executed, and imprisons her own sister Eliza¬
beth. Marries Philip of Spain, and restores Roman Catholicism. Perse¬
cution of the Protestants. Calais taken by the French (1558).
1558-1603. Elizabeth. Protestantism re-established. Flourishing state
of commerce. Mary, Queen of Scots, executed after a long confinement in
England (1587). Destruction of the Spanish 'Invincible Armada' (1588).
Sir Francis Drake, the celebrated circumnavigator. Foundation of the
East India Company. Golden age of English literature: Shakespeare, Bacon,
Spenser, Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, Marlowe, Drayton.
House of Stuart (1603-1714).
1603-1625. James I., King of Scots, and son of Mary Stuart, unites by
his accession the two kingdoms of England and Scotland. Persecution
of the Puritans and Roman Catholics. Influence of Buckingham. Gun¬
powder Plot (1605). Execution of Sir Walter Raleigh (1618).
1625-1649. Charles I. imitates his father in the arbitrary nature of
his rule, quarrels with Parliament on questions of taxation, dissolves it
repeatedly, and tyrannically attempts to arrest five members of the House
of Commons (Hampden, Pym, etc.). Rise of the Covenanters in Scotland.
Long Parliament. Outbreak of civil war between the King and his ad¬
herents (Cavaliers) on the one side, and the Parliament and its friends
(Roundheads) on the other. The King defeated by Oliver Cromwell at
Marston Moor and Naseby. He takes refuge in the Scottish camp, but is
given up to the Parliamentary leaders, tried, and executed at Whitehall.
1649-1653. Commonwealth. The Scots rise in favour of Charles II.,
but are defeated at Dunbar and Worcester by Cromwell.
16531660. Protectorate. Oliver Cromwell now becomes Lord Pro¬
tector of England, and by his vigorous and wise government makes Eng¬
land prosperous at home and respected abroad. On Cromwell's death
(1658), he is succeeded by his son Richard, who soon resigns, whereupon
Charles II. is restored by General Monk. John Milton, the ooet; Thomas
Hobbes, the philosopher; George Fox, the founder of the Quakers.
1660-16^5. Charles II. General amnesty proclaimed, a few of the re¬
gicides only being excepted. Arbitrary government. The Ca'ial. Wars
with Holland. Persecution of the Papists after the pretended discovery of
a Popish Plot. Passing of the Habeas Corpus Act (1679). Wars with the
Covenanters. Battle of Boihwell Bridge. Rye House Plot. Charles a pen¬
sioner of France. Names Whig and Tory come into use. Dryden and
Butler, the poets; Locke, the philosopher; John Bunyan.
1685-1688. James II., a Roman Catholic, soon alienates the people
tiy his love for that form of religion, is quite unable to resist tbe invasion
of William of Orange, escapes to France, and spends his last years at
St. Germain, near Paris. Sir Isaac Hewlon (Principia', 1G87).