OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
1189-1199. Richard I., Coeur de Lion, takes a prominent part in the
Third Crusade, but is captured on his way home, and imprisoned in
Germany for upwards of a year. He carries on war with Philip II.
1199-1216. John, surnamed Lackland, is defeated at Bouvines (1214) by
Philip II. of France, and loses Normandy. Magna Charta, the groundwork
of the English constitution, is extorted from him by his Barons (1215).
1216-1272. Henry III., by his misrule, becomes involved in a war
with his Barons, headed by Simon de Montfort, and is defeated at Lewes.
His son Edward gains the battle of Evesham, where De Montfort is slain.
Hubert de Burgh defeats the French at sea. Provisions of Oxford (1258).
Commons summoned to Parliament (1265). Roger Bacon, the philosopher.
1272-1307. Edward I., Longshanks, overcomes the Welsh under Lle¬
wellyn, and completes the conquest of Wales. The heir-apparent to the
English throne thenceforward hears the title of Prince of Wales. Robert
Bruce and John Baliol struggle for the crown of Scotland. Edward espouses
the cause of the latter (who swears fealty to England), and overruns Scot¬
land. The Scots, led by Sir William Wallace, offer a determined resistance.
Wallace executed at London (1305). The Scots defeated at Falkirk and
Methuen, and the country subdued. Establishment of the English Par¬
liament substantially in its modern form (1295).
1307-1327. Edward II. is signally defeated at Bannockburn by the
Scots under Robert Bruce the younger, and is forced to retire to England
(1314). The Queen and her paramour Mortimer join with the Barons in
taking up arms against the King, who is deposed, and shortly afterwards
murdered in prison.
1327-1377. Edward III. defeats the Scots at Halidon Hill and Neville's
Cross. Lays claim to the throne of France, and invades that country,
thus beginning the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
Victories of Sluyt (naval; 1340), Cricy (1346), and Poitiers (1356). John the
Good of France, taken prisoner by the Black Prince, dies in captivity
(1364). After the death of the Black Prince, England loses all her French
possessions, except Calais. Order of the Garter founded. Movement against
the corruption of the clergy, headed by the reformer John Wycliffe. House
of Commons holds its meetings apart from the House of Lords.
1377-1399. Richard II. Rebellion of Wat Tyler, occasioned by in¬
crease of taxation. Battle with the Scots at Otterburn or Chevy Chase.
Henry of Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, leads an army against the King,
takes him captive, and according to popular tradition, starves him to
death in Pontefract Castle. Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry.
House of Lancasteb (1399-1461).
1399-1413. Henry IV., Bolingbroke, now secures his election to the
crown, in right of his descent from Henry III. Outbreak of the nobility,
under the Earl of Northumberland and his son Percy Hotspur, is quelled
by the victory of Shrewsbury, at which the latter is slain (1403).
1413-1422. Henry V. renews the claims of England to the French
crown, wins the battle of Agincourt (1415), and subdues the N. of France.
Persecution of the Lollards, or followers of Wycliffe.
1422-1461. Henry VI. is proclaimed King of France at Paris. The
Maid of Orleans defeats the English and recovers French possessions.
Outbreak of the civil contest called the lWars o) the Roses', between the
houses of Lancaster (red rose) and i'ork (white rose). Henry becomes
insane. Richard, Duke of York, grandson of Edward III., lays claim to the
throne, joins himself with Warwick, the 'King-Maker', and wing the battle
of Northampton, but is defeated and slain at Wakefield. His son Edward,
however, is appointed King. Rebellion of Jack Cade.
House of Yoke (1461-1485).
1461-1483. Edward IV. wins the battles of Towton, Hedgley Moor, and
Hexham. Warwick takes the part of Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI.,
and forces Edward to flee to Holland, whence, however, he soon returns
and wins the victories of Barnet and Tewkesbury. Henry VI. dies sud-