OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY.
VII. Outline of English History.
Roman Period (B.C. 55-A. D. 445).
B. C. 55-54. Of Britain before its first invasion by Julius Caesar in
B. C. 55 there is no authentic history. Ctesar repeats his invasion in B. C.
54 but makes no permanent settlement.
43 A. I). Erup. Claudius undertakes the subjugation of Britain.
78-85. South Britain, with part of Caledonia, is overrun by the Roman
general Agricola, and reduced to the condition of a province.
412. Roman legions recalled from Britain by Honorius.
445. The Britons are unable to resist the attacks of the Picts, and
summon the Saxons, under Hen-gist and Horsa, to their aid.
Anglo-Saxon Period (445-1066).
445-577. The Saxons, re-inforced by the Angles, Jutes, and other
Germanic tribes, gradually overrun Britain and thus lay the foundations
of the kingdom of England. To this period belong the semi-mythical ex¬
ploits of King Arthur and his knights.
588-685. The Northumbrian Kingdom. Christianity re-introduced by
St. Augustine (597). Caedmon (about 665).
685-828. The Three Kingdoms (Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex). The
Venerable Bede (d. 735).
828. Egbert of Wessex recognized as overlord of all English kingdoms.
835-871. Contests with the Danes, who repeatedly invade England.
871-901. Alfred the Great defeats the Danes, and compels them to
make peace. Creates navy, establishes militia, revises laws, re-organises
institutions, is a patron of learning, and himself an author.
979-1016. Ethelred the Unready draws down upon England the ven¬
geance of the Danes by a massacre of those who had settled in England.
1013. The Danish king Sweyn conquers England.
1016-1035. Canute the Great, the son of Sweyn, reigns over England.
1035-1040. Harold Harefoot, illegitimate son of Canute, usurps the
1040-1042. Hardicanute, son of Canute. — The Saxon line is restored
in the person of —
1042-1066. Edward the Confessor, who makes London his capital, and
builds Westminster Abbey. His brother-in-law and successor —
1066. Harold, son of Earl Godwin, loses his kingdom and his life at
tbe Battle of Hastings, where he opposed the invasion of the Normans
under William the Conqueror.
Norman Dynasty (1066-1154).
1066-1087. William the Conqueror, of Normandy, establishes himself
as King of the English. Introduction of Norman (French) language and
1087-1100. William II., surnamed Rufus, after a tyrannical reign, is
accidentally shot by Sir Walter Tyrrell while hunting (p. 86).
1100-1135. Henry I., Beauclerc, defeats his elder brother Robert, Duke
of Normandy, at the battle of Tenchebrai (1106), and adds Normandy to the
possessions of the English crown. He leaves his kingdom to his daughter
Matilda, who however, is unable to wrest it from —
1135-1154. Stephen, of Blois, grandson of the Conqueror. David, King
of Scotland, and uncle of .Matilda, is defeated and taken prisoner at the
Battle of the Standard (1138). Stephen appoints as his successor Matilda's
son, Henry of Anjou or Plantagenet (from the planta genista or broom,
the liartge of this family).
House of Plantagenet (1154-1399).
1154-1189. Henry II. Strife with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canter¬
bury, regarding the respective spheres of the civil and ecclesiastical powers.
The Archbishop excommunicates the King's followers, and is murdered
by lour knights at Canterbury (1170). Conquest of Ireland (1170-72). Robin
Hood, the lorest outlaw, nourishes.