I. Money. Expenses. Passports. Custom House. Time.
Money. In Great Britain alone among the more important states
of Europe the currency is arranged without much reference to the
decimal system. The English Oold coins are the sovereign or
pound (I. = libra, livre) equal to 20 shillings, and the half-sover¬
eign. The Silver coins are the crown (5 shillings), the half-crown,
the double florin (4 shillings; seldom seen), the florin (2 shillings),
the shilling («. = solidus), and the sixpenny and threepenny pieces.
The Bronze coinage consists of the penny (d., Lat.* denarius), of
which 12 make a shilling, the halfpenny, and the farthing (i/id.~).
The Guinea, a sum of 21s., though still used in popular reckon¬
ing, is no longer in circulation as a coin. A sovereign is approxi¬
mately equal to 5 American dollars, 25 francs, 20 German marks,
or 24 Austrian crowns (gold). The Bank of England issues notes
for 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 pounds, and upwards. These are useful
in paying large sums ; but for ordinary use, as change is not always
readily procured, gold is preferable. The number of each note should
be taken down in a pocket-book, as there is, in this case, a bare
possibility that it may be traced and recovered, if lost or stolen.
The notes of certain provincial banks circulate locally; in Scotland
the place of the sovereign is very generally taken by the one-pound
notes of several privileged banks, which circulate freely through¬
out that country only. Foreign Money does not circulate in Eng¬
land, and it should always be exchanged on arrival. A convenient
and safe mode of carrying money from America or the Continent is
in the shape of letters of credit, or circular notes, which are readily
procurable at the principal banks. A larger sum than will suffice for
the day's expenses should never be carried on the person, and gold
and silver coins of a similar size (e.g. sovereigns and shillings)
should not be kept in the same pocket.
Expenses. The cost of a visit to Great Britain depends of course
on the habits and tastes of the traveller. If he frequent, first-class
hotels, travel first-class on the railways, and systematically prefer
driving to walking, he must be prepared to spend 30-40s. a day or
upwards. Persons of moderate requirements, however, will have
little difficulty, with the aid of the information in the Handbook,
in travelling comfortably with a daily expenditure of 20-25s., while
the pedestrian or cyclist of moderate requirements may reduce his
expenses to 10-15s. per diem, or even less in some of the remoter
Baedeker's Great Britain. 6th Edit. b