The French monarch having declined the dignity in behalf of his
son, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was next selectedby the congress, and
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831.
The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th
Nov., 1831, by the représentatives of the flve great powers and of
Belgium, although not flnally recognised by the exasperated King
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of
the independent European states, and determined the boundaries
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms.
King Leopold IL, born in 1835, the son of Leopold I. (b. 1790,
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi¬
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on lOth Dec., 1865. His
Queen is Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph.
The royal family consista of the Princesses Louise (b. 1858 ; mar-
ried in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg), Stéphanie (b. 1864 ;
married in 1881 to Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria), and Clémen¬
tine (b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), died at the âge of
ten. The Count of Flanders (b. 1845), who is married to a German
Princess, is the King's brother. Charlotte, the widow of Maximilian,
Emp. of Mexico (d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II.
Extent. The extrêmelengthof the kingdom, fromN.W. toS.E.,
is 179 Engl. M., breadth from N. to S. 110 M., area 11,373 sq. M.
Population (in 1886) 5,909,945 (in 1831, 3,785,864 only), of
whom about 1x/<i millions are Flemings, and about 2 millions Wal-
loons. The Roman Catholic religion is greatly prédominant, about
15,000 only of the population being Protestants, and 3000 Jews;
and of thèse two sects more than half are résident in the provinces
of Antwerp and Brabant.
Provinces. The country is divided into nine provinces, viz.
Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, E. Flanders, Hainault, Liège,
Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur. The density of population
amounts to about 520 per sq. M., and varies from 847 per sq. M.
in Brabant to 120 per sq. M. in Luxembourg. Brabant, E. Flan¬
ders, and Hainault, are, with the exception of some of the manu-
facturing districts of England, among the most densely peopled
districts in the world.
Army. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the
defence of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the
Treaty of London (p. xviii). It consists of 103,860 men, of whom
4247 are offlcers, and in time of peace, of 44,610 men. The army
is composed of the following régiments : 1 Carabineers, 3 Riflemen,
14 Infantry of the Une, 1 Grenadiers ; 2 Chasseurs-à-cheval, 4 Lan¬
cers, 2 Guides, whose celebrated band is one of the best in Europe ;
4 Field Artillery (40 batteries of 6 guns each, 14mounted), 3Fortress
Artillery; 1 Engineers ; 1 Telegraph, and 1 Railway company.
There are also several companies of the military train andpontoniers.
The country is divided into four military districts, each containing