228 Route 17. BUTÎG. From Assiût
duce, so that their encouragement by the fellahin is rightly regarded
as a serious mistake in their husbandry.
572 M. Shaghbeh (Chaghaba), on the W. bank. Shatb (Chatb),
which lies 3 M. inland, near the railway, is perhaps the Egyptian
Shes-holep, the Greek Hypselis, capital of the Hypselite nome. The
chief deity hère was the goat-headed Khnum (necropolis, see p. 227).
Farther on, on the W. bank, is the small town of El-Matî'a (rail.
station, see p. 203), with 7219 inhab.; on the opposite (È.) bank,
in the Gebel Rekhâm, to the E. of the villages of Natfeh and El-
Ghorayeb, is an alabaster quarry.
15 M. Butîg or Abutîg (steamboat-station; rail, stat., p. 203),
an agricultural town on the W. bank with 11,000 inhab. and a
small harbour filled with Nile-boats, lies in the ancient Hypselite
nome. A large weekly market is held on Saturday. The présent
name is probably derived from the Greek name of ÂtcoiWjxt] (Apo-
theke), i.e. Storehouse.
Near the E. bank is El-Badâri (7850 inhab.); on the W. bank
follow the railway-station s of (21 M.) Sedfeh (Sedfa) and (2772 M.)
Near El-Badâri, 2l/i M. from the Nile, are several rude rock-tombs with¬
out inscriptions. Farther to the S., near Râhineh, are four large quarries
in the hard limestone rock. Near Eamamîyeh, in the steep side of the rocky
hill, are three ancient rock-tombs, one above another, containing inscrip¬
tions and représentations. About il/i M. inland from Tema lies the vil¬
lage of Kôm Eshkâw, with 4000 inhab. ; this was the ancient Aphrodilespolis,
the capital of the tenth nome of Upper Egypt.
3172M. Kâuel-Gharb(W. bank) is oppositeKàu el-Kebir, which
lies in the plain on the E. bank and is surrounded by a ring of
hills, containing grottoes with sculptures and quarries with demotic
inscriptions. Stamped bricks found in the mounds of débris be¬
longed to buildings of the 18th Dynasty. The name Kâu recalls
the ancient Egyptian name of the town Tu-Kow (Coptic Tkow);
the Greeks named it Antaeopolis, in honour ofthe remarkable deity
worshipped hère, whom they identified with Antaeus (p. cxxiii).
According to the myth, Antœus was a Libyan king of immense strength,
who was in the habit of wrestling with ail visitors to his dominions and
of slaying those whom he vanquished, in order to build a temple to his
father Poséidon with their skulls. Hercules came to try conclusions with
him, and after overthrowing him in a wrestling-match, slew him. — Ac¬
cording to Diodorus the final struggle betwixt Horus and Typhon (Seth) took
place hère (comp. p. 335). In the Roman period Antœopolis was the capital of
the Antœopolitan nome. The last remains of an imposing temple, dedicated
hère by Ptolemy Philometor to Antseits and restored by Marcus Aurelius
and his colleague Verus (164 A.D.), were swept away by the Nile in 1821. —
In a deep grotto-like quarry in the N.E. angle of the hill behind Kâu are
two pillars bearing two remarkable paintings of the god Antseus and the
3872 M. Sâhel, on the W. bank, with 4500 inhab., is the station
for the town of Tahta (p. 203), situated 2 M. inland.
On the E. bank, a little higher up, rises the Gebel Sheikh el-
Harîdeh, with ancient quarries and tombs hewn in the rock, the
openings of which are visible from the river.