to Assiût. GEBEL ET-TEIR. 16. Route. 207
Est-em-kheb and her husband Men-kheper-rê, or of their son Pinotem (II.), high-
priest of Ammon. — Within the walls, picturesquely situated among palms,
are the ruins of a temple, built by Sheshonk I. and Osorkon I. (22nd Dyn.).
Farther up on the W. bank is El-Fant (p. 201). On the E. bank
rises the Gebel Sheikh Embârak.
10872 M. Maghàgha (post and telegraph office at the rail, stat.,
p. 201), on the W. bank, with a large sugar-factory.
Thrice a month a camel-post leaves Maghàgha for (3-4 days) the 'Small
Oasis' of Bahrîyeh, also called Oasis of Behnesa, because it is connected
with Behnesa by another desert-route (comp. p. 202). — Opposite Maghàgha,
about 12-20 M. to the E. of the Nile, near the wide Wâdi esh-Sheikh, are
the remains of some ancient Flint Mines, discovered by Mr. H. W. Seton-
Karr in 1896 and furnishing the chief muséums of the world with hundreds
of prehistoric flint implements.
The Nile-channel is very wide hère (several islands) ; farther on
both banks are fiât. — At (113 M.) Sharôna (Charounah ; E. bank)
are tombs of the end of the 6th Dynasty. Near Kôm el-Ahmar, to
the S., are the ruins of a large temple built by Ptolemy L, and
tombs of a late period, belonging to the town of Het-seteni, in the
Cynopolitan nome. — 118 M. Béni Mazar (W. bank) is a railway
station (p. 202). Farther to the W., on the verge of the Libyan
désert, lies Behnesa (p. 202). — About 3 M. farther up, close to the
E. bank, is the insignificant village of Esh-Sheikh Fadhl, with
1800 inhab. and a large sugar-factory, near which is Hamatha. The
discovery of a large number of dog-mummies hère proves that we
are standing on the site ofthe necropolis oîCynopolis ('city of dogs').
Several trough-like hollows and clefts hâve been found hère, some of
which, in the rocks, are of considérable size. There are no inscrip¬
tions. Cynopolis itself, in which Anubis was worshipped and dogs
were held sacred, lay, according to Ptolemy, on an island in the Nile.
Opposite, 17i M. from the W. bank, lies El-Keis, the Egyptian
Kaïs, which superseded Cynopolis.
Near (13372 M.) Kolôsneh (Kolosna; rail, stat., p. 202), on the
W. bank, the Nile divides into three arms, forming two considérable
islands. Opposite (E. bank) lies Surarîyeh (El-Seririeh). To the N.
and S. quarries are worked in the limestone rock. Among the S.
quarries is a small Rock Chapel, built under Merenptah and dedi¬
cated to Hathor. On the external wall is Ramses III. between Hathor
and another deity.
On the W. bank lies the railway-station of Samallût (p. 202). A
little farther to the S., at the mouth of a side-valley on the E.
bank, rise the steep rocky sides of the Gebel et-Teir ('bird-moun-
tain'), with an extensive flat top bearing the Coptic convent Deir
el-Bukara, also known as Deir el-'Adra ('convent of the Virgin').
Visitors are drawn up a vertical cleft in the rock by means of a
windlass (bukara). The convent, which consists of a group of misér¬
able huts, occupied not only by the monks but by laymen with
their wives and children (1600 soûls in ail), is surrounded by a
wall of hewn stone, erected in the Roman period. The foundation