6. Consulates. I. PRELIMINARY .INFORMATION.
open day and night. The tariff is 20 mill. for 8 words or less, and
5 mill. for every two additional words. Telegrams may be sent in any
European language, except from the smaller stations, where Arabie
messages only are accepted. — Telegrams to Europe and the United
States should be sent by the English Eastern Co., via Malta and Vigo.
To England each word (not exceeding ten letters ; if longer,.it counts
as two words) costs ls., to Canada and the United States 96-121
millièmes.—A telegram from Great Britain to Alexandria costs ls.7d.
per word; to other parts of Egypt ls. 10d., 2s., 2s. 3d., or 2s. Gd.
(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice.
Public Safety. The authority of the Khédive is so well estab-
lished throughout the whole of Egypt that travellers are as safe as
in Europe. Weapons for self-defence are an unnecessary encum-
brance. — Fowling-pieces may be purchased in Cairo or Mred at
the principal hôtels. Sportsmen who bring their own guns must sign
a déclaration that they are for their personal use only and not intended
for sale. This déclaration includes the right to import the necessary
ammunition, though this latter may generally be equally well ob¬
tained in Cairo. In the towns farther up the Nile nothing but coarse
gunpowder can be obtained.
Consulates. Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilège of
exterritoriality as ambassadors in otber countries. On public occa¬
sions they are attended by kavasses, or armed consular officers. A
distinction is sometimes made between professional ('consules missi')
and commercial consuls ; and there are consuls gênerai (who act as
political agents), consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, pos-
sessing various degrees of authority. In ail cases of emergency the
traveller should apply for advice to the nearest consul of his country.
There are no consuls within the Anglo-Egyptian Sudân (p. 405).
Courts of Justice. In place of the exclusive consular juris-
diction to which foreigners were formerly liable, a System of Mixed
Tribunals was established in 1876. The judges consist of natives
and foreigners (the latter generally appointed by the Khédive from
qualified officiais nominated by the Great Powers), who give their
verdicts in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of France
and Italy. Cases in which the Khédive himself and the Egyptian
government are concerned are also triedbefore this tribunal, which
includes courts of first and second instance. The courts of the first
instance are at Cairo, Alexandria, and Mansûra, and there is a délé¬
gation at Port Sa'îd. The appeal-court is at Alexandria. Lists of
qualified barristers are exhibited in the anterooms of the courts. —
Important civil cases between natives, and ail criminal cases, are
tried by the Native Courts, estab.lished in 1884. Tribunals of the
First Instance are situated at Cairo, Alexandria, Benisueif, Assiût,
Kena, Tanta, and Zakâzîk. Thèse also form the Tribunals of Second