32 Route 4.
9870 Greeks, 5124 French, 6727 British (including a garrison of
3000 men), 2262 Austrians, and 487 Germans. The mass of the
population consists of Egypto-Arabian townspeople (p. xliv), Fellah
settlers (p. xxxvi), Berbers (p. xlv), Copts (p. xxxix), Turks (p. xlv),
and Jews (p. xlvii), the last of whom number 5800 souls. Besides the
natives and the European residents, the traveller will frequently
encounter negroes of various races, Northern Africans, Beduins,
Syrians, Persians, Indians, and other Oriental settlers.
History of Cairo. At a very remote period a city lay on the
E. bank of the Nile, opposite the great pyramids, and was called by
the Egyptians Khere-ohe, or 'place of combat', because Hoius and Set
were said to have contended here (p. cxx). The Greeks named it Bab¬
ylon, probably in imitation of some Egyptian name of similar sound.
The citadel of this town (p. 71) was fortified by the Romans, and
under Augustus became the headquarters of one of the three legions
stationed in Egypt. In A.D. 640 Babylon was captured by 'Amr ibn
el-As, the general of Khalif 'Omar, who subsequently established
the new capital of the country here, in opposition to Alexandria
(p. 11), which was not so free from the disturbing Christian element.
A mosque was built on the site of the conqueror's tent, and the
Arabic word for tent (Fosfdf) became the name of the new city. The
latter gradually expanded towards the N., and was extended to the
N.E. as far as the base of the citadel by Ahmed ibn Tuliin, who
erected the new quarter of el-Kafd'i'. Ahmed's splendour-loving
son Khumdruyeh embellished the town with lavish magnificence.
The modern city of Cairo was founded by Gohar, the general of the
Fatimite Khalif Mui'zz, after the conquest of Egypt in 969 A.D.
He erected a residence for the Khalif and barracks for the soldiers
commanded by him to the N. of el-Kata'i'. At the hour when the
foundation of the walls was laid, the planet Mars, which the Arabs
call Kahir, or 'the victorious', crossed the meridian of the new eity;
and Mui'zz accordingly named the place Masr el-Kdhira, or Kdhira.
Masr, the ancient Semitic name of Egypt, was also applied to Fostat,
the form Masr el-'Atika (Old Cairo) being only introduced at a later
date for the sake of clearness. The new town extended rapidly.
Bricks were easily made ofthe Nile mud, the Mokattam hills afforded
excellent stone, while the gigantic ruins of the ancient Memphis
on the opposite bank of the river were also used as a quarry. In
973 Mui'zz took up his permanent residence in the new city of
Cairo. In 1166 the citadel which still commands the city was erected
by Salaheddin Yusuf ibn EyyiXb (Saladin) on the slope of the Mo¬
kattam hills; and the same sultan caused the whole town, together
with the citadel itself, to be enclosed by a wall, 29,000 ells in
length. Under his luxurious and extravagant successors Cairo was
greatly extended and magnificently embellished. At that period,
however, Cairo was fearfully devastated by the plague, as it had
been on two former occasions (in 1067 and 1295), and was also