Harbour. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 7
to the latter semi-Oriental town, which has much developed since the
events of 1882. It is unadvisable to postpone the inspection of Alexandria
until the return, for by that time the traveller is saturated with other
impressions. — 1st Day. In the morning walk or drive through the town
and bazaar, by the Rue Cherif Pacha and the Place Mihimet Ali to the Rue
Rds el-Tin and its side-streets, including, if time permit, a visit to the
Palais Rds el-Tin (p. 14); in the afternoon go by rail (p. 18) or carriage (p. 5)
to Ramleh (p. 19), with its villas. Drivers may return via the Mahmfidiyeh
Canal and the Villa Anloniades (p. 17). — 2nd Day. In the morning visit
the Graeco-Roman Museum (p. 15) and devote the afternoon to the Rue Ibrahim,
Minet el-Bassal, Gabbari (p. 18), the Mahmddiyeh Canal, Pompey's Pillar, and
the Catacombs (p. 12).
Alexandria, called Iskanderieh by the Arabs and Turks, the sec¬
ond town of Egypt, and one of the most important commercial cities
on the Mediterranean, is situated at the W. extremity of the Nile-
delta, on the narrow sandy strip separating Lake Mareotis from the
sea, inE. long. 29°58'30", and N. lat. 31°13'5". It contains
(1897) a population of 320,000, of whom about 46,000 are Europeans
(Franks), chiefly Greeks and Italians, but including also some
French and Austriaus, and a few British, Germans, etc. The Mo¬
hammedans live almost exclusively in the N. and W. quarters of the
city, the Europeans in the E. quarter, and at Ramleh (p. 19).
Alexandria has two Harbours. The Fort Est, or E. harbour,
known in antiquity as the 'Great Harbour' and then sheltered by a
massive mole, is now accessible only for fishing-boats. The Port
Ouest, or W. harbour (originally named Eunostos after the son-in-
law of Ptolemy I.), was not freely used until the time of the later
Roman emperors. Under the Arabs it was the chief haven, and after¬
wards came to be called (erroneously) the 'Old Harbour'. Since
1871 it has been enlarged by the addition of an Outer Harbour,
about 1800 acres in area. This is protected by a breakwater nearly
2 M. in length, constructed of solid masses of masonry. The broad
horizontal surface is 10 ft. above the level of the water at low tide.
A second pier, or Molo, nearly 1000 yds. in length, protects the
Inner Harbour, which is about 475 acres in area and on an average
27 ft. deep. From the beginning of this pier a series of new quays
extends along the whole E. side of the harbour to the Arsenal (p. 14).
The port is entered and cleared annually by upwards of 2000
steamers, more than half of which are under the British flag. The
Mahmudlyeh Canal (p. 11), which connects Alexandria with the Nile,
enters the inner harbour by several locks (PI. C, 6). The chief
exports are cotton, grain, cotton-seed, beans, rice, sugar, onions, etc.
1. History and Topography of Ancient Alexandria.
Alexandria was founded in B.C. 332 by Alexander the Great,
and forms a magnificent and lasting memorial of his Egyptian cam¬
paign. He conceived the plan of founding a new and splendid sea¬
port town in Egypt, both to facilitate the flow of Egypt's wealth
towards Greece and the Archipelago, and to connect the venerable