she collected the fragments, and wherever one had been found
erected a monument on the spot to its memory; and this accounts
for the numerous tombs of Osiris mentioned as existing in Egypt
and elsewhere. When Horus grew up he set out to avenge his
father's murder, and after terrible contests was at last victorious.
According to other accounts the combatants were separated by
Thout, who assigned the S. of Egypt to Horus and the N. to Set.
Osiris was afterwards magically restored to life by Horus and con¬
tinued to rule the W. land as king of the dead.
The origin of the world, the movements of the heavenly bodies,
and the alternation of day and night awoke speculation in Egypt at
a very early date, the result of which was a naive belief that the
world was created by supernatural beings, who revealed themselves
in the heavenly bodies and controlled the processes of nature.
According to a wide-spread belief the earth was a god named Keb,
the sky a goddess named Newt. Originally these were united, but
they were afterwards separated by the god Show, who raised the
sky-goddess aloft in his arms. Another and more materialistic view
regarded the earth as a huge oval plain, floating upon the ocean,
and the sky as a flat slab resting upon the mountains at the extrem
ities of the earth, with the stars hanging from it like lamps. The
Sun, the principal heavenly body, was in particular the subject of
many theories, probably representing the teachings of the different
colleges of priests throughout the country. In one place the sun
god Re was conceived of as sailing across the ocean of heaven in a
boat; in another the sun was regarded as a brilliantly plumaged
hawk flying across the firmament and driving away the hostile
clouds; and in a third the sun was a powerful young hero, new¬
born every morning from the goddess of the sky, and waging a
ceaseless combat with the powers of darkness. It was also con¬
ceived of under the form of a scarabaeus or beetle. The myth of Re
seems to have been chiefly developed in Heliopolis, where the sun
god Re - Harmachis was worshipped along with the local deity
Atum. Orion and Sothis played the leading roles among the stars ;
and among the other powers of nature a prominent place was filled
by the Nile God, to whom indeed the country owed its prosperity.
All these deities received general worship, though none of them
had particular temples of their own.
When Egypt became a single state, there seems to have been
felt the need of a deity who should be common to the whole country
and should be worshipped in all places without reference to the
local gods. The sun-god Re was selected as the national deity,
doubtless owing to the influence of the priests of Heliopolis. The
king was regarded as his representative and successor upon earth
and was therefore styled 'Son of Re' or 'Horus', Horus being fre¬
quently regarded as the son of Re. The coronation ceremonies seem
to have been completed by the proclamation of the accession in the