Tl\) II. R. onthe Tiber(L.B.). ROME. f. Campo di Fiore.
f. Quarter to the S. of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele as far
as the Piazza Montanara. Isola Tiberina.
To the S. of the Pal. della Cancelleria (p. 218) lies the Piazza
Campo di Fiore (PL II, 14), an important centre of business, espe¬
cially since the vegetable-market, frequented in the morning by
picturesque country-people, was transferred hither from the Piazza
Navona. Heretics and criminals used to be put to death here. Among
the former was the philosopher Giordano Bruno, whose death in this
square on Feb. 17th, 1600, is commemorated by a bronze "Statue
(designed by Ettore Ferrari), erected in 1889 on the site of the stake,
Giordano Bruno, born at Nola near Naples in 1550, entered the Domin¬
ican order. In 1680 he fled to Geneva, and after a career of wandering,
during which he visited France, England, and Germany, he was seized
and imprisoned at Venice by the Inquisition in 1598. — The Reliefs on
the base of the monument represent: on the right, Bruno teaching; behind,
his trial; on the left, his execution at the stake. The Medallions are por¬
traits of the champions of religious freedom: Paolo Sarpi of Venice (1552-
1623), Tommaso Campanella of Calabria (1568-1639), Petrus Ramus of
France (1515-1572), Lucilio Vanini of Naples (about 1585-1619), Aonius
Palearius of Rome (1500-1570), Michael Servetus of Spain (1511-1553), John
Wiclif of England (1321-1384), and John Huss of Bohemia (1369-1415).
To the E. of the Campo di Fiore once lay the Theatre of Pom-
pey (PL II, 14). In the court of the Pal. Pio or Righetti (entrance,
Via Biscione 95), a bronze statue of Hercules (p. 338) and substruc¬
tures of the theatre were discovered. Fragments of the ancient walls
are incorporated in the modern building. The semicircular bend of
the street by Santa Maria di Grottapinta distinctly shows the form
of the ancient auditorium; the stage approximately occupied the site
of the present Via de' Chiavari. Behind the latter extended the large
Porticus Pompeiana, with its colonnades and halls, in one of which
Julius Caesar was murdered on March 15th, 43 B.C. — The Via de'
Giubbonari leads hence to San Carlo ai Catinari (p. 222).
From tho Campo di Fiore three parallel streets lead to the S.W.
to the Piazza Farnese, with two fountains. Here stands the —
"Palazzo Farnese (PL II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome,
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45),
from designs by Ant. da Sangallo the Younger (p. lxxiii), continued
after his death (1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo, and
completed by the construction of the loggia at the back, towards
the Tiber, by Giac. della Porta in 1580. Michael Angelo's plans
had included a second court (behind the present court), to be de¬
corated with the Farnese antiquities now at Naples, and a bridge
connecting the palazzo with the Villa Famesina on the other side
of the Tiber. The building materials were taken partly from the
Colosseum, and partly from the Theatre of Marcellus. This palace
was inherited by the kings of Naples, to whose heirs it still belongs.
It was leased in 1874 by the French government, whose embassy to
the Italian government is now established here. On the second floor
is the 'Ecole de Rome', or French archaeological institution, founded