d. S. Croce in Gerusalemme. ROME. I. N. and E. Hill*. 177
street to the right, leads to the Lateran (p. 291); and the Via
Principe Eugbnio, on the left, to the Porta Maggiore.
The Porta Maggiore (PL II, 34) was originally an archway
belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus flowed
through a second conduit. The Aqua Claudia, 42 M. in length, brought
water from the neighbourhood of Subiaco (p. 411), and the Anio
Novus from the sources of the river of that name, a distance of 51 M.
The inscriptions record the construction of both aqueducts by the
Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, and also their restoration by Vespasian
in 71, and by Titus in 81. Aurelian converted the monument into
one of the gates of his city-wall, and Honorius restored and extended
it; while the Colonnas used it in the middle ages as the nucleus of
a castle. Remains of the constructions of Honorius and a long in¬
scription of 405 A.D. may be seen outside the gate, to the right.
The gate was purged of the later additions by Gregory XVI.
Two roads diverged hence in antiquity: to the left the Via Prae-
nestina, and to the right the Via Labicana, now named Via Casilina.
Between these, outside the gate, was discovered in 1838 the remark¬
able Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, erected in imitation of knead-
ing-bowls and grain-measures laid in alternate rows.
The monument, dating from the close of the republic, was erected by
the baker himself; and the principal inscription, thrice repeated, is to the
effect that — 'This is the monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, baker
and public purveyor of bread.' Some of the reliefs represent grinding,
baking, and other processes in his trade, and others refer to his post of
purveyor to the state.
From this point to the Amphitheatrum Castrense and the Porta
San Giovanni, see p. 299 ; to the Campagna, see p. 374.
From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) Santa Croce in
Gerusalemme, passing under the arches of the Claudian aqueduct, and
skirting the town-wall on the inside. — From Santa Maria Maggiore
(p. 172) to this church by the Via Conte Verde is a walk of 20 minutes.
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 34), one of the seven pil¬
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of law, formerly stood here, is
said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of her discovery
of the Cross. As early as 433 a Council met here. The church was
rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144, and was modernised under Benedict XIV.
in 1743, by Gregorini, who added the poor facade.
Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Cffisarius.
In the tribune are modernised frescoes of the Invention of the Cross, of
the school of Pinturicchio. The church contains numerous relics, including
the 'Inscription on the Cross'.
To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on the
left is an altar with a marble relief (Pieta); at the sides are statuettes of
SS. Peter and Paul of the 12th century. On the right the chapel of St. Helena
(to which ladies are admitted on 20th 3Iarch only). On the vaulting are
fine Mosaics, after Bald. Peruzzi, representing the Four Evangelists. In the
centre, Christ. In the arch over the entrance, on the left St. Helena, right
Baedeker. Italy II. 13tB Edition. 12