176 I.N. and E. Hills. ROME. d. Campo Verano.
into a choir with a crypt by laying a pavement halfway up the columns,
and caused the aisles to be filled up. The rubbish was removed in 1870 and
the original level of the aisles exposed to view. The church of Pelagius, a
basilica in the style of Sant' Agnese Fuori (which is the only other church
at Rome with galleries), was originally entered at the opposite (E.) end.
Twelve magnificent fluted columns of pavonazzetto with Corinthian capitals
(those of the two first are formed of trophies, on the benches in front of
them are mediaeval lions) support the straight entablature, which consists of
antique fragments and bears a gallery with graceful smaller columns and
arches. On the triumphal arch, of which this is the original front, are
restored mosaics of the time of Pelagius II. (579-590; the earliest showing
traces of the influence of the E. empire): Christ, right SS. Peter, Lawrence,
and Pelagius; left SS. Paul, Stephen, and Hippolytus. The canopy dates from
1148; its dome is modern. By the wall at the back is the handsome
episcopal throne. — We now descend the flight of steps from the prolonga¬
tion of the aisle of the anterior church and reach the aisles of the church
of Pelagius. The nave of the old church is now partly occupied by the
crypt, entered from above, partly by the modern marble columns support¬
ing the floor of the above-mentioned choir. In the vestibule of the original
church, behind an iron railing, is the Tomb of Pius IX. (d. Feb. 7th, 1878).
The vestibule is gorgeously decorated with mosaics, from designs by L.Seitz,
but the tomb itself, according to the injunctions of the deceased pope, is
of the plainest character, consisting of a marble sarcophagus in a niche
painted like those in the catacombs.
The handsome Romanesque Cloisters (Chiostro; generally closed) contain
numerous fragments of sculptures and inscriptions built into the walls; in
the corner to the right of the principal entrance is the lid of a sarcophagus
adorned with the triumphal procession of Cybele.
Adjoining the church is the Campo Verano, an extensive cem¬
etery, opened in 1837, and repeatedly enlarged since. By the entrance
are colossal figures of Silence, Charity, Hope, and Meditation. Among
the numerous handsome monuments is one commemorating the
Battle of Mentana (p. 90), with appropriate inscriptions. Fine view
of the mountains and the Campagna from the higher part of the
cemetery, reached by several flights of steps. — During the first
week of November the cemetery is crowded with Italians visiting the
graves of their relatives.
The Viale Princtpessa Margherita (PL II, 30, 32) leads from
Santa Bibiana (p. 174) to the N.W. to the Piazza Guglielmo Pepe
(with remains of the above-mentioned Aqua Julia) and the (10 min.)
Railway Station (p. 159). To the S.E. it leads in 5 min. to the so-
called Temple of Minerva Medica (PL II, 32), the ruin of an ancient
Nymphaeum in the form of a decagon, 55 yds. in circumference,
with deep niches in the walls, and originally covered with marble
below and stucco above. In the middle ages the ruin was called Le
Galluzze, a name which has been conjectured to be a corruption of
(the Thermae of) 'Gaius and Lucius Caesar', of whose existence,
however, there is no other hint. The vaulting existed down to 1828.
The interesting building dates from the imperial period.
The Via Conte Verde, the middle street running from the S.E.
side of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, leads to the church of Santa
Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 177); the Via Emanuele Filiberto, the