d. S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura. ROME. 7. N. and E. Hills. 175
ancient Porta Tiburtina, which led to Tivoli. The gateway, con¬
structed by the emperor Honorius against an arch, over which,
according to the inscription, passed the three aqueducts Marcia,
Tepula, and Julia, is now shut. The new road starts from an opening
in the wall to the S.E. of the gate, and farther on joins the ancient
Via Tiburtina (p. 402). It is bounded by lofty new buildings, and
does not afford views of the Sabine Mts. until the church is reached,
3/4 M. from the gate. In the little piazza in front of the church is a
Column with a bronze statue of St. Lawrence.
The basilica of *San Lorenzo fuori le Mura (PL I, 36) oocupies
the spot where Constantine founded a church on the burial-place of
St. Lawrence and St. Cyriaca. In 578 it was rebuilt by Pelagius II.
This ancient edifice, which was entered from the E., was entirely
remodelled by Honorius III. (1216-27), who added the present
nave to the apse, and transferred the facade with the porch to the
W. end. An angle formed by the outer walls shows where the new
part was added. Under Nicholas V. and Innocent X., and lastly
under Pius IX. in 1864-70, the church underwent extensive altera¬
tions , and the older half is now at least partly freed from disfigur¬
ing patchwork. San Lorenzo is a patriarchal church, and one of the
seven pilgrimage-churches of Rome (p. xxxvi).
In 1864 the Facade was embellished with paintings resem¬
bling mosaic, on a gold ground, representing the founders and
patrons of the church: Pelagius II., the Emp. Constantine, Ho¬
norius III., Pius IX., Sixtus III., and Hadrian I. The vestibule is
borne by six ancient columns, above which is an architrave with mo¬
saics (St. Lawrence and Honorius III.); it contains retouched frescoes
of the 13th cent., two tombs in the form of temples, and two rude
early-Christian sarcophagi. The door-posts rest on lions.
The Interior consists of two parts. The anterior Later Chdrch, which
chiefly dates from Honorius III., consists of nave and aisles, separated
by 22 antique granite and cipollino columns of unequal shape. On the
capital of the 8th column on the right are a frog and a lizard, and it
is therefore supposed, but without authority, to have been brought from
the portico of Octavia, where two sculptors Batrachus (frog) and Saurus
(lizard) are said to have adopted this method of perpetuating their names.
The wall above the straight entablature was adorned in 1870 with frescoes
by Fraccassini (on the right, history of St. Lawrence; on the left, that of
St. Stephen). The open roof also was recently gaudily painted. The rich
pavement, in opus Alexandrinum, dates from the 12th cent. (p. lxiii). Under
a mediaeval canopy to the right of the entrance is an ancient Sarcophagus
with a representation of a wedding, in which in 1256 the remains of Card.
Fieschi, nephew of Innocent IV., were placed. To the left are old frescoes
of the life of St. Lawrence. In the nave are the two elevated ambones, that
to the right (p. lxi) for the gospel, near which is a spiral candelabrum for
the Easter candle, that to the left for the epistle (12th cent.). On the
triumphal arch are modern paintings (resembling mosaics) of the Bladonna
and saints. At the extremity of the N. aisle a flight of 13 steps, on the
left, descends to a chapel and the catacombs.
Adjoining this building of Honorius on the E. is the Older Church,
erected by Pelagius, the pavement of which lies about 10 ft. lower. The raised
central space, to which seven steps ascend on each side of the Confessio,
dates from the time of Honorius, who converted the nave of the older church