c. Palazzo del Quirinale. ROME. I. TV. and E. Hills. 169
the Thermae of Constantine (of which remains have been discovered
in the Via della Dataria which descends hence) probably in such a
way that the horses stood on each side in the doorway, while the
Dioscuri (18 ft. high) were outside the entrance. They have never
been buried nor concealed from view; and for centuries the piazza
derived its name from them ('Monte Cavallo'). The inscriptions on
the pedestals, Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis, were probably
first added in a restoration of the Thermae about 450 A.D., though
in their present form they date only from the time of Sixtus V. In
the middle ages these were supposed to be the names of two philo¬
sophers, who, having divined the thoughts of Tiberius, were honoured
by the erection of these monuments in recognition of their wisdom.
The piazza commands a fine view of the town, to the W.,
with the dome of St. Peter's in the background. The Via della Da¬
taria (see above), reached from the N.W. corner of the piazza by a
flight of steps, is continued to the N.W. by the Via San Vincenzo to
the Fontana Trevi (p. 153), and to the W. by the Via dell' Umilta
to the Corso, near the Palazzo Sciarra (p. 192).
The Palazzo Regio del Quirinale (PI. II, 21) was begun in 1574
under Gregory XIII. and largely added to under subsequent popes,
who frequently occupied it in summer on account of its lofty and
healthful situation. The original architect was Flaminio Ponzio,
among whose successors were Dom. Fontana, Bernini, and Ferd.
Fuga. Since 1870 the palace has been the residence of the king of
Italy, and during his presence a small part only is shown to the public.
Permessi and admission, see pp. 140,141. —Visitors show their permessi
to the porter and ascend the wide staircase to the left at the end of the
vestibule. An interesting fresco by Melozzo da Forli (p. 202) has been
built into the wall on the landing, representing Christ in a cloud of angels
(formerly in the church of Santi Apostoli, p. 202). — At the top of the stair¬
case we write our names in a book, and obtain an escort (no fee). Adjacent
to the Sala Regia, with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saraceni, is the Cap¬
pella Paolina, erected by Carlo Maderna, and decorated with gilded stucco-
work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in Santi Vincenzo ed
Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (p. 383) and with tapestry of the 18th century.
The chapel contains a large number of wreaths and addresses sent by Italians
in all parts of the world on the occasion of Victor Emmanuel II.'s death. —
To the right lies a suite of Drawing Rooms and Reception Rooms, adorned
with pictures and tapestry, chiefly modern. The reception-room of the
ambassadors, beyond the throne-room, contains several portrait of sov¬
ereigns and princes. In the 10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's
Villa (quite concealed by the carpet). In the 14th, a fine ceiling-painting
by Overbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. in 1848: Christ
eluding the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a precipice (Luke iv.
28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. — Towards the garden are
the Rotal Guest Chambers. The frieze of the former audience-chamber
here is a cast of Thorvaldsen's Triumphal Procession of Alexander the
Great, ordered by Napoleon I. for this saloon. After 1815 the original was
removed to the Villa Sommariva, now Carlotta, on the Lake of Conio. In
the small Cappella dell' Annunziata is an Annunciation, an altar-piece by
The Garden, which is not shown, was tastefully laid out by O. Maderna.
TheE. side of the Piazza del Quirinale is occupied by the Consulta,