c. Thermae of Diocletian. ROME. /. N. and E. Hills. 159
are still extant and are good examples of Roman brickwork. The wall
on the S. side was hastily repaired in the early middle ages with blocks
of stone from ancient buildings.
To the E. is the large Policlinica (PI. I, 32, 33), a handsome
building designed by G. Podesti and completed in 1896, but not
yet in use.
In the town-wall at the S.W. angle of the Castro Pretorio is a
Gateway, of the time of Aurelian, the ancient name of which is un¬
known. It seems to have been built up in the reign of Honorius. —
Hence to the Porta San Lorenzo (p. 174), 12 minutes.
c. Piazza delle Terme. Via Nazionale. The Quirinal.
On the S. side of the Piazza delle Terme and the adjoining
Piazza dei Cinciuecento (PL I, 27) is the Railway Station, con¬
structed by Miriereand Bianchi in 1872. Opposite the arrival-plat¬
form begins the wide Via Cavour, leading to the Piazza dell' Esqui-
lino and the Forum (see p. 179). — In front of the main facade of
the station, which faces the Thermae of Diocletian, is a Monument
to the 500 Italian soldiers who were surprised and slain at Dogali
by the Abyssinians in 1886. A small obelisk from the temple of
Isis (p. 194), found in 1882, has been incorporated in this monu¬
ment. — Excavations to the E. of the station have revealed the most
important extant fragment of the Fortifications of Servius (p.xxx),
which consisted here of a rampart about 100 ft. in breadth and 50 ft.
in height. The extant wall, about 40 ft. high, was originally banked
up with earth on the inner side. Near the custodian's hut (reached
through the first gateway in the Via di Porta di San Lorenzo) is a
small construction of travertine and tufa, identified by Prof. Middle-
ton as a 'puteus' or inspection-shaft on the Anio Vetus aqueduct.
Tramways and Omnibuses, see Appendix.
The Thermae of Diocletian (PL I, 27), which give name to the
piazza, were the most extensive thermae in Rome, and were completed
by Dioc'otian and his co-regent Maximian in 305-6 A.D. The prin¬
cipal building was enclosed by a peribolos, the outline of the round
central portion ('exedra') of which is preserved by the modern houses
at the beginning of the Via Nazionale (p. 165). The corners were
occupied by circular domed structures, one of which is now the
church of San Bernardo (p. 157), and another is built into a girls'
school on the Via Viminale. The circumference of the baths is
said to have been about 2000 yds., or half as much again as that of
the Baths of Caracalla (p. 279), and the number of daily bathers
3000. The front faced the E., the exedra being at the back.
Tradition ascribes the execution of the work to condemned Christians,
in memory of whom the church of St. Cyriacus, no longer existing,
was erected here in the 5th century.
Pius IV. entrusted Michael Angelo with the task of adapting
part of the Thermae for a Carthusian Convent. The large vaulted