158 I. N. and E. Hills. ROME. b. Praetorian Camp.
In the 2nd Chapel on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes (the ecstasy and 'stigmata'of St. Francis)
by Domenichino. In the 3rd Chapel on the left, the Trinity by Guercino. In
the left transept is the notorious group of St. Theresa by Bernini, the ex¬
ecution of which is masterly, whatever may be thought of the spirit. The
apse was gorgeously restored in 1884 at the cost of Prince Al. Torlonia,
and adorned with frescoes by Serra (Procession after the battle of the
At the opposite corner, whence a short street leads to the Piazza
delle Terme, is the conspicuous Fontanone dell' AcauA Felice
(PI. I, 24), erected by Domenico Fontana under Sixtus V. (Felice
Peretti). The badly-executed Moses, an imitation of Michael Angelo, is
by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to have died of vexation on account
of his failure; at the sides, Aaron and Gideon by Giov. Batt. della
Porta and Flaminio Vacca; in front, four modern lions (antique orig¬
inals in the Vatican, p. 346). The Acqua Felice was conducted
hither in 1583 from Colonna in the Alban Mts., a distance of 13 M.
The Via Venti Settembre proceeds, past the Finance Office, built
by Canevari (behind which is a monument to Silvio Spaventa, the
statesman; 1822-93), and the statue (by Ferrari) of Quint. Sella
(d. 1884), statesman and several times minister of finance, to the
Porta Pia (p. 372; 15-20 min. from the Quattro Fontane). To the
right, just inside the gate, is the British Embassy (PL I, 26), in the
former Villa Torlonia.
The Porta Pia (PI. I, 29), famous in the annals of Rome for the
attack of the Italians on Sept. 20th, 1870, was begun from designs
by Michael Angelo in 1564. On the outside, to the left, three mem¬
orial tablets, placed in 1871, 1874, and 1895, mark the place where
the breach was made through which the Italians entered the city.
Opposite, in the Corso d'ltalia, rises a Column of Victory (PL 1,26),
by Aureli and Guastalla. To the right of the gate is the old Porta
Nomentana, walled up since 1564.
From the Porta Pia to Sant1 Agnese, see p. 372.
The road skirting the outside of the city-wall to the right from
the Porta Pia leads in a few minutes to the Castro Pretorio (PI. I,
29, 30, 32, 33), a fortified camp, originally established by Tiberius
for the imperial body-guaTd of 10,000 men (who were, down to the
time of Aurelian, reinforced by the four 'Cohortes Urbanae' with their
4000 men). The camp occupies a quadrangular space, 430 yds. long
by 380 yds. wide, and was originally enclosed by a battlemented wall,
12 ft. in height, against which vaulted chambers were built on the
inside. Aurelian included the camp in his fortifications (p. 147) and
doubled the height of the wall. Constantine, who disbanded the
Praetorian guards, destroyed their camp so far as it did not form part
of the town-wall. The Castro, which now contains modern barracks,
is again devoted to military purposes and accessible only by special
Two of the ancient gates (on the N. side, nearly opposite the 'Officina
Elettrica', and on the E. side), both dating from the reign of Tiberius,