should be disregarded. They are not made with a single eye to the
interests of the traveller.
Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per¬
son (p. xv) or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt.
The Pensions of Rome and Siena also receive passing travellers,
but as the price of dejeuner is usually (though not universally) in¬
cluded in the fixed daily charge, the traveller has either to sacrifice
some of the best hours for visiting the galleries or to pay for a meal
he does not consume. Though the establishments mentioned in
the Handbook are in every respect reliable, it may be said that,
as a general rule, the pensions in Rome are inferior to those in
Private Apartments are recommended for a prolonged res¬
idence. A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand.
When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on
stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid of some one acquainted
with the language and customs of the place [e.g. a banker), in order
that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. For single travellers a
verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, boot-cleaning,
stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for fuel, and other details
will generally suffice.
The popular idea of Cleanliness in Italy is behind the age. The
traveller will rarely suffer from ihis shortcoming in the first-class hotels
or even the better second-class hotels; but those who quit the beaten
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if pos¬
sible be selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of
repose. Insect-powder (poleere insetticida or contro gli insetti orKeating's;
better procured before leaving home) or camphor somewhat repels their
advances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often
of suffering, during the summer and autumn-months. Windows should
always be closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin
curtains (zanzarierO round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The
burning of insect powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and
pastilles (fidil>us contro le zanzare) may be purchased at the principal
chemists' for the same purpose. A weak solution of carbolic or boracic acid
in water is efficacious in allaying the discomfort occasioned by the bites.
A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing
(la bianeheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); night-shirt,
camicia dinotte; collar, ilcollo, il colletto; cuff, ilpolsino; drawers, lemutande;
woollen undershirt, una maglia, una flanella or giubba di flanella: petticoat,
la sottana; stocking, la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazzo-
letto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucalo, newly
washed); washing-list, la nota; washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la
lavandaia; buttons, i bottom.
X. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie.
Restaurants of the first class ( Ristoranti) in the larger towns
resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high charges.
— The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly frequented by
Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, but those of a better class
may be visited by ladies also. They are generally open from 11 a.m.