founded SocietH per la Repressione dell' Accattonaggio strongly re¬
commends travellers to decline to give anything, with the word
'niente', or a gesture of disapproval. The foolish practice of 'scat¬
tering' copper coins to be struggled for by the street-arabs is high¬
ly reprehensible, and, like most idle gratuities to children, has a
demoralizing effect upon the recipients.
Railways. The remarks made in the first volume of the Hand¬
book are also applicable to the railways of Central Italy. The rate
of travelling is very moderate, and the trains are often behind time.
The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second are
inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the Eng¬
lish and French,, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the
lower orders. Among the expressions with which the railway-tra¬
veller will soon become familiar are — 'pronti' (ready), 'partenza'
(departure), 'fermata' (halt), 'si cambia treno' (change carriages),
'essere in coincidenza1 (to make connection), and 'uscita' (egress).
The station-master is called 'capo stazione'. Smoking compartments
are labelled 'pei fumatori', those for non-smokers 'e vietato di fu-
mare'. Sleeping-carriages (cr.upe a letti) are provided on all the
main lines at a small extra charge. — Railway time is that of Cen¬
tral Europe, which is 55 min. in advance of French railway time
and 10 min. in advance of Roman true time.
When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready
before taking tickets ('fare il b^gUettc'). 'Mistakes' are far from un¬
common on the part of the ticket-clerks or of the officials who weigh
luggage. In addition to the fare a tax of 5 c. is payable on each
ticket; while owing to a special tax of 10°/q the express fares are
about 20 per cent higher than the ordinary. This special tax is not
included in the fares given in the time-tables and printed on the
tickets (see under Sovratassa in the undermentioned Orario). It is
also important to be at the station early. The booking-office at large
stations is open 40 min., at small stations 20 min. before the de¬
parture of the trains. Holders of tickets are alone entitled to enter
the waiting-rooms. At the end of the journey tickets are given up
at the uscita. — Holders of ordinary tickets for over 124 M. (200 Kil.)
may break their journey once, those with tickets for over 310 M.
(500 Kil.) twice; but the journey in each case must be resumed
before midnight on the following day, and the tickets must be pre¬
sented for stamping before entering the train.
Passengers by night-trains from the larger stations may hire pillows
(cuscino, guanciale; 1 fr.). These must not be removed from the compartment.
No luggage is allowed free except small articles taken by the
passenger into his carriage; the rate of charge is 4l/2 c. for 100 kilo¬
grammes (about 220 lbs.) per kilometre. The traveller should, if