ants, etc., invariably expect, and often demand as their right a gratu¬
ity (buona mano, mancia, da here, caffe, sigaro), in addition to the
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 10-15 c. to
a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona¬
tions to the smallest possible sums. The gratuities suggested in
this Handbook are on a sufficiently liberal scale ; some, however, will
of course give more, while the traveller of modest claims will find
perhaps two-thirds or even less enough. The following scale will be
found useful by the average tourist. In private collections a single
visitor should bestow a gratuity of 50 c., 2-3 pers. 75 c, 4 pers. 1 fr.
For repeated visits half these sums. For opening a church-door, etc.
10-20 c. is enough, but if extra services are rendered [e.g. uncovering
an altar-piece, lighting candles, etc.), from 74 to 1 fr. may be given.
In hotels and restaurants about 5-10% of the reckoning should
be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. In restau¬
rants where 'service' and 'couvert' appear on the bill, no fee at all
should be given.
Guides (Guide, sing, la Guidu) may be hired at 6-8 fr. per day,
but their services may generally well be dispensed with by those
who are not pressed for time. Purchases should never be made, nor
contracts with vetturini or other persons drawn up, in presence or
with the aid of a commissionaire , as any such intervention tends
considerably to increase the prices. Licensed guides (Grade paten-
tate) may now be obtained in Rome (apply at any hotel). Their
licenses are issued by the Italian Archaeological Commission, and
contain a tariff of charges.
VI. Public Safety. Begging.
Travelling in Northern and Central Italy is not attended with
greater hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The
traveller should, of course, avoid the less frequented parts of Rome
and its environs after nightfall. Information as to the safety of
the Campagna is also not to be despised, though cases of robbery
there are hardly more numerous than in the neighbourhood of any
large city. Ladies should never undertake expeditions to the more
solitary districts without escort; and even the masculine trav¬
eller should arrange his excursions so as to regain the city not
much later than sunset. In the towns the Guardie or policemen,
and in the country the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a
black uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats), will be found
thoroughly respectable and trustworthy.
Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. Concealed
weapons (sword-sticks; even knives with spring-blades, etc.) are
absolutely prohibited, and the bearer is liable to imprisonment
without the option of a fine.
Begging, which is most prevalent at the church-doors, has re¬
cently increased in frequency in the streets of Rome. The recently