option of the 5 lira piece) are not current out of Italy. In
^er (bronzo or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi,
-<rtid in nickel a piece of 20 c.; in silver there are pieces of'/^i 1* 2,
and 5 fr.; and in gold, pieces of 10 and 20 fr. In consequence of
the present financial stringency, however, the gold coins have dis¬
appeared from ordinary circulation. The silver coins, which also
disappeared for many years, being replaced by Buoni di Cassa (silver
warrants) for 1 and 2 fr., were restored to circulation in 1899.
— The recognized paper currency in Italy consists of the Biglietti di
Stato (treasury notes) for 5, 10, and 25 fr., and the banknotes of
the Banca Nazionale nel Regno d'ltalia, the Banca Toscana di Cre-
dito, the Banca Nazionale Toscana (all of which will be gradually
superseded by the notes of the Banca d'ltalia), the Banca di Napoli,
and the Banca di Sicilia. Other notes [Banca Romana, etc.) should
be refused. — Gold pieces of 10 or 20 francs should be converted
into paper at a money-changer's; for the premium on gold (ca. 8 per
cent) is lost at hotels or shops. — The traveller should be on his
guard against base coin, worn pieces, coins from the papal mint,
Swiss silver coins with the seated figure of Helvetb, Roumanian,
and South American coins. All foreign copper coins (except those
of San Marino) should be rejected. Even Italian coins issued before
1863 ('Re Eletto') are liable to refusal.
Best Monet for the Tour. Circular Notes or Letters of Cre¬
dit, obtainable at the principal English and American banks, form
the proper medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the
most favourable exchange. English and German banknotes also
realise their nominal value. Sovereigns are received at the full value
(ca. 26-27'/2 ft- in 1899) by the principal hotel-keepers. Besides
silver and small notes, l-l^fr. in copper should also be carried in
a separate pocket or pouch (comp. p. xii).
Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10!., are
granted by the British Pest Office at the following rates: not exceeding
2i., Cd.; 51., Is.; ll.,is.6d.; 10J.,2s. These are paid in gold. The identity
of the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known residents
or by a Libretto di Reeognizione Poftale (1 fr.; with 10 coupons), obtained
at any head post-office, but an exhibition of the pa.-sport often suffices.
The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in Great Britain
is 40 c. per 11. sterling. Small sums may be conveniently transmitted
within Italy by means of money order postcards (cartoline vaglin): 10 c.
for 1-5 fr.; 5 c. for each additional 5 fr. (maximum 25 fr.).
The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort; but such
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French