sold, but bread and cheese may be obtained at some of the osterie.
Some of the better establishments (fiaschetterie) in Rome and
Florence are also restaurants.
In Northern Italy the favourite wines are the carefully prepared
Piedmontese brands, Barolo, Nebiolo, Grignolino, Barbira, and the spark¬
ling Asti Spumante; the Valtellina wines (best Sassella); the Veronese
Valpolicella ; the Vincentine Marzemino and Breganze (a white, sweet
wine); the Paduan Bagnoli; in the province of Treviso, Conegliano,
Raboso di Piave, Prosecco, and Verdiso; in Udine, Refosco; the wine
of Bologna, partly from French vineyards; Lambrusco, etc.
In Tuscany the best wines (all red) are: Chianti (best Broglio), Ru-
flna (best Pomino). Nipozzano, Allomena, Carmignano, and Aleatico
(sweet). Orvieto and Montepulciano are white wines produced farther
to the south. — A 'fiasco', a straw-covered flask, usually holding three
ordinary bottles, is generally brought, but only the quantity consumed
is paid for. Smaller bottles may sometimes be obtained: mezzo fiasco
(Vali quarto fiasco (i/4), ottavino (i/8); these must be bought outright.
In Rome the commonest wines, besides the Tuscan, are those of the
neighbourhood (Vini dei Castelli Romani), the favourite being Fras-
cati, Marino, and Genzano. Wines of a better quality are sold in ordi¬
nary corked and labelled bottles. Table-wine (vino da pasto) is served
in open flasks: i/2 litre, un mezzo litro; 1\i litre, un quarto; x/5 litre, un
quinto or bicchiere. The figures on the outside of the shops (6, 7, 8, etc.)
indicate the price per i/2 litre in soldi (1 soldo = 5 c). In shops outside
the town the wine is very cheap and often excellent.
The Neapolitan wines are good, but mostly full-bodied: Falemo,
famous in antiquity, from the vineyards near Gaeta; Lacrimae Christi,
from Vesuvius; Capri, Ischia, Procida, Gragnano, Salerno, etc.
Birrerie, corresponding to the French 'Brasseries', are now
found in all the larger towns and chief resorts of visitors. Munich,
Pilsen, or Gratz beer may generally be procured at these. A small
glass (piccola tazza) costs 30-40 c, a large glass (generally holding
un mezzo litro) 50-60 c. Luncheon may usually be obtained at these.
Cigars (sigdri) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and
usually bad: Conchas and Trabucos, 20 c., Minghettis, 15 c,
Grimaldis, 10 c, Virginias, 8, 12, or 15 c, Toscani, Napoletani,
Cavours, V-/2-10 c., etc. Good imported cigars may be bought at
the better shops in the large towns for 25-60 c. each, and also foreign
cigarettes. — Travellers who import their own cigars, paying the
heavy duty, should keep the customs receipt, as they are liable to
be challenged, e.g. by the octroi officials (p. x). — Passers-by are
at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning in every tobac¬
conist's, without making any purchase.
Vm, Sights. Theatres. Shops.
The larger Churches are open in the morning till 12, and
generally again from 2, 3, or 4 to 7 p.m., while the most important
are often open the whole day. Many of the smaller churches are
open only till 8 or 9 a.m. Visitors may inspect the works of art
even during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly,
and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On
festivals and for a week or two before Easter the works of ant