or even the better second-class hotels; but those who quit the beaten
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible
be selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose.
Insect-powder (polvere insetticida or contro gli insetti, or Keating's; better
procured before leaving home) or camphor somewhat repels their advances.
The zanzdre, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often of suf¬
fering, during the summer and autumn-months. Windows should always
be closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin cur¬
tains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The
burning of insect-powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and
pastilles (fldibus contro le zanzare) may be purchased at the principal
chemists' for the same purpose. A weak solution of carbolic or boracic acid
in water is efficacious in allaying the discomfort occasioned by the bites.
A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, dilana); night¬
shirt, camicia di notte; collar, il collo, il colletto; cuff, il%)olsino; drawers,
le mulande; woollen undershirt, una maglia, una, flanella or giubba di
flanella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking, la calza; sock, la calzetta;
handkerchief (silk), il fazzoletto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare a
bucato (di bucato, newly washed); washing-list, la nota; washerwoman,
laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaia; buttons, i bottoni.
Restaurants of the first class (Ristoranti) in the larger
towns resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly
high charges. — The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly
frequented by Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, but those of
a better class may be visited by ladies also. They are generally
frequented between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. for luncheon, and between 5
and 8 p.m. for dinner; most of them close soon after 8 o'clock. Dinner
is served a la carte (l1^-^ fr.), and sometimes a prezzo fisso (2-
5 fr.). The waiter is called cameriere (or bottega); the approved
way of attracting his attention is by knocking on the table. If too
importunate in his recommendations or suggestions, he may be
checked with the word 'basta'. The diner calls for the bill with
the words 'il conto', and should check the items and addition.
Gratuities, see p. xiii.
List of the ordinary dishes at
Antipasti, Principii, corresponding
to 'hors d'eeuvres' (such as olives,
sardines, or radishes).
Minestra or Zuppa, soup.
Brodo or Consume, broth or bouil¬
Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green
vegetables and bread.
Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-
soup with peas.
Risotto (alia Milanese), a savoury
preparation of rice.
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al sugo
ealburro, with sauce and butter;
ai pomi d'oro, with tomatoes.
the Italian restaurants: —
Came lessa, bollita, boiled meat;
in umido, alia genovese, with
sauce; ben cotto, well-done; al
sangue, all' inglese, underdone;
ai ferri, cooked on the gridiron.
Manzo, boiled beef.
Fritto, una Frittura, fried meat.
Fritto mislo, a mixture of fried
liver, brains, artichokes, etc.
Arrosto, roasted meat.
Arrosto di vitello, roast-veal.