liberal scale; some, however, will of course give more, while the
traveller of modest claims will find perhaps two-thirds or even less
enough. In public collections, where a charge for admission is made,
the keepers (custodi) are forbidden to accept gratuities. In private
collections 1-2 persons should bestow a gratuity of 1/2-l fr., 3-4
persons l-l1/2 fr.; for repeated visits less. For opening a church-
door, etc. 10-20 c. is enough, but if extra services are rendered (e.g.
uncovering an altar-piece, lighting candles, etc.), from 40 c. to 1 fr.
may be given. — In hotels and restaurants about 5-10°/0 of the
reckoning should be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged
for. In restaurants where 'service' and 'couvert' appear on the bill
the fee should be proportionately reduced.
Guides (Guide, sing, la Guida) may be hired at 6-10 fr. per
day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief hotels.
In some towns (e.g. Rome and Venice) the better guides have formed
societies as 'Guide patentate' or 'Guide autorizzate'. Their services
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with
vetturini or other persons drawn up, in presence or with the aid of
a commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to
increase the prices.
Public Safety. Travellers will naturally avoid lonely quarters
after nightfall, just as they would at home; and this precaution is
especially advisable in large towns and their neighbourhood. Ladies
should never make expeditions to the more solitary districts without
escort; and even the masculine traveller should arrange his excursions
so as to regain the city not much later than sunset. In the towns
the policemen are called Guardie, and in the country Carabi-
nieri (black uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats).
Begging (Vaccattonaggio) still continues to flourish in spite
of the efforts made by the authorities to suppress it. The misplaced
generosity of some travellers largely contributes to perpetuate the
nuisance. Alms should in no case be given except to the obviously
infirm; the foolish practice of scattering copper coins to be strug¬
gled for by street arabs is most reprehensible. Importunate beggars
should be dismissed with 'niente', or by a gesture of refusal.
V. Railways. Steamboats.
The great Italian railways are owned by the state, but are leased
to private companies; a number of local lines belong to private
owners In continental Italy the two principal systems are the
Rete Mediterranea and the Rete Adriatica. The first-class car¬
riages are comfortable, the second resemble the English and French,
while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower orders.
The international trains de luxe are generally available for long-