Acqua di Serino, at Naples, is also excellent. In all the large
towns German beer is obtainable at a moderate price, but the best
and safest beverage, at any rate in Central Italy and at Naples, is
the red 'vin ordinaire' of the country. Finally, a word of warning
against the too rapid hurrying from sight to sight and from place
to place. In addition to neglected colds and imprudences of diet,
over-exertion is one of the chief causes of serious illness from which
so many travellers in Italy have suffered. If no hour of the day is
set aside for rest, if every available moment is spent in rushing from
one attraction to the other, the strain will tell on the strongest
constitution. On the smallest symptom of indisposition all excur¬
sions should be given up until the nervous system has recovered
its usual tone. Should the malaise persist a physician should be
Recent investigation (initiated by Sir Ronald Ross) has shown
that malaria, which is so prevalent in certain parts of Italy during
summer, is due to infection by a species of mosquito (anopheles
claviger) which becomes active towards the end of June. Of the
districts described in the Handbook the Roman Campagna, the W.
environs of Naples, and Psestum are most exposed to this danger.
From July until the autumn months they are annually visited with
an epidemic of malarial fever. Fortunately the disease never pene¬
trates into the streets and houses of cities, so that even in Rome
there is nothing to fear from it.
IV- Intercourse with Italians. Gratuities. Guides.
Public Safety. Begging.
The traveller who has some knowledge of Italian will soon learn
to adapt himself to the methods practised by cab-drivers, gondoliers,
guides, porters, etc. in Northern and Central Italy. In the S.,
especially in Naples, where the insolence and rapacity of the lower
classes have attained an almost incredible pitch, the difficulty is
much greater. Where tarif s and fixed charges exist they should
be carefully consulted; while the data in this Handbook will be of
much assistance also. The fewest words are the best, and the trav¬
eller will find that calm preparations to go elsewhere generally
soon reduce obstinate hagglers to reason. Tact and good temper are
Gratuities. There is no other country where one has to give
so many gratuities as in Italy, or where such small sums are suffi¬
cient. The traveller, therefore, should always be provided with an
abundant supply of copper coins. Drivers, porters, etc., invariably
expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona mano,
mancia, da here, caffe, siydro), in addition to the hire agreed on,
varying according to circumstances from 10-15 c. to a franc or more.
The gratuities suggested in this Handbook are on a sufficiently