300 Route 52. FLORENCE. Cathedral.
the Florentines against Lucca in the expedition to Majorca in 1117. The
chain of the harbour of Pisa, carried off by the Florentines in 1362, was
formerly suspended here, but has been recently restored to the Pisans and
is preserved in the Campo Santo.
The Third Door (X.) is also by Ghiberti (1403—27). It represents in
28 sections the history of Christ, the Apostles and Fathers down to St.
Augustine. Many rival artists are said to have competed for the honour
of undertaking this work, of whom the principal were Ghiberti, Brunellesco
(in the Bargello, p. 303), Jacopo della Fonte, Simone da Colle, and probably
also Donatello, but the preference was given to Ghiberti. Above the door
the Preaching of St. John by Fr. Rustici (supposed to have been designed
by Leonardo da Vinci).
In the Interior of the baptistery are a number of statues and pictures
of subordinate importance. The dome and small choirs are adorned with
old "mosaics by Andrea Tafi, Apollonio Greco, Jacopo da Turrita, Domenico
Ghirlandajo, Taddeo and Agnolo Gaddi, Alessio Baldovinetti, Lippo Lippi
etc., which however are not recognisable except on very bright days.
On the pavement ancient mosaics with the zodiac and inscriptions. R. of
the high altar the tomb of Pope John XXIII. (d. 1419), who was deposed
by the Council of Constance, the recumbent bronze statue by Donatello.
On the festival of St. John an altar of massive silver with a cross of the
same metal are placed here, adorned with bas-reliefs from the life of the
Baptist, by Maso Finiguerra, Antonio da Pollajuolo, Maestro done, Veroc-
chio, and others. The altar contains 325 lbs. of silver, the cross 141 lbs.
In front of the church is a column of speckled marble (cipollino), erected
in 1330 to commemorate the removal of the remains of St. Zenobius.
The *Cathedral (PL 8), II Duomo, or La Cattedrale di S.
Maria del Fiore, so called from the lily which figures in the
arms of Florence, was erected 1298—1474 on the site of the
earlier church of St. Reparata by Arnolfo di Cambio, Giotto,
Taddeo Gaddi, Andrea Orcagna, and Lorenzo di Filippo. The
dome was added 1421 — 36 by Filippo Brunellesco; its height
(298 ft. , with the lantern 354 ft.) exceeds that of the domes of
St. Peter and the Pantheon at Rome (ascent see p. 301). The
church, a grand example of Italian Gothic, 555 ft. in length,
340 ft. (across the transepts) in breadth, is one of the most
admired in Italy. The facade had already been commenced by
Arnolfo, but his successor Giotto designed a new and more im¬
posing plan (of which copies still exist, e. g. in the cloisters of
S. Croce and S. Marco), and executed one half of it himself. In
1586 this work was demolished with a view to replacing it by a
new facade, designed by Buontalenti, Dosio, Cigoli, and others,
a project which however was not carried out. The cathedral
(like S. Croce, S. Lorenzo, etc.) consequently remained destitute
of a facade, a defect which it was sought to remedy by supplying
its place with frescoes, but these have long since disappeared.
In April, 1860, Victor Emanuel laid the foundation-stone of a
new facade. The workmanship of the marble-clad walls is ex¬
cellent and chaste. The two side-entrances and the chapels are
sparingly ornamented. The grand proportions of the interior are
most impressive, although the walls present a somewhat bald
appearance. The choir, instead of being at the extremity of the
church, is appropriately placed under the dome.