51. Route. 273
much irequeuteu as a pngrimage-cnurch. The faded paintings in the inte¬
rior are of the 14th cent. The ancient estuary of the Arno, with the har¬
bour of Pisa, must once have been at this spot, before the present coast was
formed by alluvial deposits.
One of the favourite excursions hence is to the Baths of Pisa, the
Bagni di S. Giuliano (see below), which are reached in a few minutes by
the Lucca line.
51. From Pisa to Florence by Lucca and Pistoja.
Railway in 4 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 70 c, 7 fr. 85 c, 6 fr.
The line intersects the fertile plain between the Arno and
Serchio. First stat. Bagni di San Giuliano, at the base of the
Monti Pisani, known to the ancients as Aquae Calidae Pisanorum
(Plin. Hist. Nat. II., 103). 11 Pozzetto is the warmest spring
(104° Fahr.), Bagno degli Ebrei the coldest (82°). Twelve dif¬
ferent baths are distinguished by the names of heathen divi¬
nities ; there is also a bath for the poor, as well as the usual
adjuncts of a watering-place. Many Roman antiquities have been
At the following stat. Rigoli the line approaches the Serchio,
the 1. bank of which it traverses as far as the next stat. Ripa-
fratto. It then describes a complete semicircle round the beau¬
tifully formed Monte S. Giuliano, which, as Dante says (Inferno,
33, 30), prevents the two towns of Pisa and Lucca from seeing
Lucca (* Croce di Malta, PL a; *L'Universo, PL b; Cam-
pana or Posta, PL c; Trattoria Corona, near the station, recom¬
mended) , with 64,000 inhab., formerly the capital of the duchy
of that name, is an antiquated place situated in a fertile plain,
with well-preserved fortifications, and many interesting churches.
'Lucca I'industriosa' is noted for its silk factories, a branch of
industry introduced from Sicily in the 14th cent. , and also for
its woollen goods. The oriental fez is largely manufactured here
and exported to the Levant.
The foundation of Lucca (Greek and Roman Luca) belongs to a very
remote period. It first appertained to Liguria, afterwards to Etruria; under
the Romans it subsequently became an important municipium. Here, in
B. C. 56, Julius Caesar, at that period governor of Gaul, held a conference
with Pompey and Ciassus, with whom he had been associated since B. C. 60,
in order to discuss a plan for the administration of the vast Roman empire
for the ensuing five years. The splendour of Lucca at that period is still
indicated by the remains of the Roman "Amphitheatre near S. Frediano.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lucca belonged successively to the
Goths, Lombards, and Franks, then became a duchy, and in the 12th cent.
a republic. The feuds of the Guelphs and Ghibellines impaired the strength
of the place so seriously that in 1314 it was compelled to succumb to
Uguccione della Faggiuola of Arezzo , the warlike governor of Pisa, who is
believed by some to be the deliverer promised to Italy by Dante (Inferno,
I, 102). The poet resided with his friend Uguccione at Lucca in 1314, and
there became enamoured of the youthful Gentucca (Purgatorio 24, 23), but
he does not describe the inhabitants in very flattering terms (Inferno 21,41).
After the expulsion of Cguccione, Lucca fell in 1325 into the hands of the
powerful Castruccio Castrani degli Interminelli of Lucca, who was also.
Bjedkkek. Italy I. 2nd Edit.