244 Route 45. ANCONA.
Fiacres. One-horse from station to town, inch luggage, 1, at night
1>la fr. ; two-horse l'|2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. ii|2—2 fr., each additional '|2
hr. 60—80 c. — Bevond the town 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. UO c. for 1 hr., each ad¬
ditional '|2 hr. 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c.
Steamboats of the Austr. Lloyd (office in the Piazza S. Maria) to Trieste
once weekly in 20 hrs., to Athens in 6 days, comp. Baedeker's S. Italy.
There are also Engl., French, and Ital. companies; agents Burnas, Biby,
and Levi, all in the Via di Porto.
Railway to loggia and Brindisi (Foggia-Naples) see Baedeker's S. Italy.
i'irst stations (p. 245) Osimo, Lureto, and Porto liecanali; thus far in 1 — lij4
br.; fares 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 50 c. — From Ancona to Foligno and
Rome sec Baedeker's Central Italy.
Ancona, the capital of a province, with 46,000 inhab. (of
whom upwards of 6000 are Jews), and possessing an excellent
harbour, is beautifully situated between the two promontories of
Monte Ciriaco and Monte Conero or Monte Guasco. It lias been
a free harbour since 1732, a privilege it was permitted to retain
when incorporated with the kingdom of Italy (the formalities of
the douane must therefore be undergone when the town is
quitted). Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. Ancona
is celebrated for the beauty of its women.
Ancona is supposed to have been founded by Doric Greeks from Syra¬
cuse, whence termed Dorica Ancun (i. c. 'elbow', from the form of the pro¬
montory). It was subsequently a Roman colony, and was furnished by Trajan
with an enlarged mole. In the middle ages it repeatedly recovered from the
ravages of the Goths and others, and in 1532 came into the possession nf
Pope Clement VII. through the instrumentality of Gonzaga. Ancona is also
frequently mentioned as a fortress in the annals of modern warfare. Thus
in 1(96 it was surrendered to the French, in 179U to the Austrians, in 1805
to the French again ; in 1815 it was eeded to the pope, to whom it belonged
till 1S60. In 1832—38 the citadel was garrisoned by the French (under the
Perier ministry), in order to keep in check the Austrians, who were in
possession of Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 the town
was the scene of many excesses, and on June 18th was re-captured by the
Austrians; on Sept. 20th, 1860, after the battle of Castelfidardo, it was
finally occupied by the Italians.
On the old mole the marble *Triumphal Arch (PL 2), erected
A. D. 112 by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the
completion of the new wharf, as the inscription records, is still
standing. It is one of the finest existing ancient works of this
description. Traces of the bronze decorations with which it was
once enriched are still distinguished.
The new wharf, constructed by Pope Clement XII., also boasts
of a triumphal arch, from designs by Vunvitelli, but far inferior
to that above mentioned. The harbour is defended by seve¬
The * Cathedral of S. Ciriaco (PI. 6), dedicated to the first
bishop of Ancona, stands on a lofty site, once occupied by the
temple of Venus mentioned by Catullus (36, 13) and Juvenal
(IV, 40), and con:ains the magnificent columns which once
appertained to the ancient temple. The structure was begun in
the 10th cent., the facade is of the 13th. The foremost columns
of the beautiful (iothic. portico rest on red lions. The octagonal
dome is reputed the oldest in Italy. The crypt of the r. trail-