Palazzo Pubblico. BOLOGNA. 13. Route. 22?
was the founder of the family of the Bentivogli, afterwards so powerful,
who after protracted feuds entered into an alliance with the papal throne.
During several centuries the town was the scene of the party-struggles of
the Bentivogli, Visconti, and other families, until in 1512 Pope Julius II.
incorporated it with the States of the Church.
In 1515 the interview of Pope Leo X. with Francis I. of France took
place at Bologna, and in 1529, 1530, and 1532 those of Clement VII. with
Emp. Charles V. Here, too, in 1547 the Council of Trent assembled. In
1796 Bologna was annexed to the 'Cisalpine Republic' by Napoleon, in 1815
it again became subject to the States of the Church; in 1831 and 1849 re¬
volutions broke out, and in 1859 the town finally united itself to the king¬
dom of Italy.
In the History of Art Bologna occupies a meritorious, but not inde¬
pendent position, more especially in the provinces of sculpture and archi¬
tecture. Francesco Francia (1518,) was the first painter of note here; then
pupils of Raphael, such as Bagnacavallo and Innocenzo da Imola, and the
adherents of the schools of Leonardo da Vinci and Correggio. During the
latter half of the 16th cent, the School of the Caracci, of which eclecti¬
cism is the principal characteristic, was established at Bologna. Its foun¬
ders were Lodovico Caracci and his cousins and pupils Agostino and Annibale.
Their most illustrious pupils were Guido Reni, Albano, Domenichino (or Do-
menico Zampieri), Tiarini, and Barbieri. Guercino is also considered to be¬
long to this school.
The antiquated aspect of the town, its picturesque mediaeval architec¬
ture, lofty arcades, numerous old palaces, and venerable churches surmounted
by quaint-looking towers, all bear testimony to the peculiar character of
the place. The dialect spoken by the lower classes is almost wholly unin¬
telligible to strangers.
The 'Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PI. F, 4) (formerly Piazza
Maggiore, or del Gigante), in the centre of the town, the mediaeval
'forum' of Bologna, is one of the most interesting in Italy. It
is adorned with a Fountain by Laureti; the bronze statue of
Neptune was executed by Giov. da Bologna (born 1524 at Douay
in Flanders) in 1564. It is said to weigh 10 tons, and to have
cost 70,000 ducats.
In this Piazza is situated the Palazzo Pubblico, or del Go-
verno (PL 45), commenced in 1290, adorned with a Madonna
on the facade by Niccolo dell' Area, and a bronze statue of Pope
Gregory XIII. (Buoncompagni of Bologna) by Menganti, trans¬
formed in 1796 into a statue of St. Petronius. The grand
staircase in the interior was designed by Bramante; the chapel
with the 'Madonna del terremoto' is of 1505. The galleries
and halls are decorated with frescoes; statue of Hercules in the
hall of that name, by Alfonso Lombardi; in the Sala Farnese a
statue of Paul III., etc.
Opposite to the latter is the Palazzo del Podesta (PL 44),
of 1201, with facade of 1485, where King Enzio (p. 226) was
kept a prisoner by the Bolognese, but derived great solace from
his attachment to the beautiful Lucia Vendagoli, from whom the
Bentivoglio family (p. 276) is descended. The great hall is termed
after him Sala del Re Enzio. The conclave for the election of
Pope John XXIII. was held here in 1410. The palace contains
the Civic Archives, with a number of ancient documents.